Difference between revisions of "Philip Morris International"

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Philip Morris International, the world’s largest publicly traded tobacco company, operates in approximately 180 countries and reported 18.31 billion USD in profits in 2017.<ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Selected_Financial_Data>[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report, p.15]</ref> Philip Morris International, a U.S.-based corporation, only sells its products outside the United States. Philip Morris International was separated from its parent company, the [[Altria Group]], in March 2008, in part to protect the company from increased U.S.-based regulation and Litigation. Philip Morris International and [[Altria Group|Altria]] are now legally separate companies.
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Philip Morris International, the world’s largest publicly traded tobacco company, operates in approximately 180 countries and reported 79.82 billion USD in profits in 2018. <ref name="PMI_AR2018"> Philip Morris International website, [https://philipmorrisinternational.gcs-web.com/static-files/824f3f55-f97f-4f8f-bcb8-d00aa4dc65b1 Philip Morris International 2018 Annual Report],p.1, Accessed 23 July 2019 </REF> Philip Morris International was separated from its parent company, the [[Altria Group]], in March 2008, in part to protect the company from increased U.S.-based regulation and litigation. Philip Morris International, a U.S.-based corporation, only sells its products outside the United States. In August 2019, Philip Morris International announced a possible partnership with its former parent company, Altria Group. The combined company would create a  USD 200 billion cigarette, alcohol, vaping, and cannabis company. <ref>[https://www.cnbc.com/2019/08/30/altria-pmis-200-billion-merger-would-face-future-with-fewer-cigarettes.html Altria-PMI $200 billion merger would face a future with fewer smokers, more regs for tobacco giants], ''CNBC'', 30 August 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref> On 25th of September 2019, both companies called off discussions to reunite, following a chilly reception from investors. <ref>[https://www.cnbc.com/2019/09/25/philip-morris-and-altria-end-merger-talks.html Philip Morris and Altria end merger talks following chilly response from investors], ''CNBC'', 25 September 2019, Accessed 10 October 2019 </ref>
  
 
==Company Overview==
 
==Company Overview==
According to Philip Morris International's website, Philip Morris International is a leading international tobacco company engaged in the manufacture and sale of cigarettes and other nicotine-containing products in markets outside the United States of America. Philip Morris International Inc. is a Virginia holding company incorporated in 1987. The company's vision is for their products to "ultimately replace cigarettes to the benefit of adult smokers, society, our company and our shareholders."<ref name="PMI_AR2017" >Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], p. 1, Accessed September 2018 </ref>  
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Philip Morris International is an international tobacco corporation engaged in the manufacture and sale of cigarettes and other nicotine-containing products in markets outside the United States of America. Philip Morris International Inc. is a Virginia holding company incorporated in 1987. The company's vision is for their products to "ultimately replace cigarettes to the benefit of adult smokers, society, our company and our shareholders."<ref name="PMI_AR2017" >Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], p. 1, Accessed 12 September 2018 </ref> On 27th of August 2019, Philip Morris International announced a possible partnership with its former parent company, Altria Group. The combined company would create a  USD 200-billion cigarette, alcohol, vaping, and cannabis giant. <ref>[https://www.cnbc.com/2019/08/30/altria-pmis-200-billion-merger-would-face-future-with-fewer-cigarettes.html Altria-PMI $200 billion merger would face a future with fewer smokers, more regs for tobacco giants], ''CNBC'', 30 August 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref> Altria's shares initially rose more than 6 percent, while Philip Morris fell almost 10 percent. <ref>[https://www.devdiscourse.com/article/international/648282-philip-morris-in-merger-talks-with-altria-e-cigs-a-focus Philip Morris in merger talks with Altria; e-cigs a focus], ''Dev Discourse'', 27 August 2019, Accessed 13 September 2019 </ref> According to The Wall Street Journal, Philip Morris International will spend as much as USD 5.2 billion to take over Indonesia's third-largest cigarette maker by sales, PT Hanjaya Mandala Sampoerna. <ref>[https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB111078636094478469 Philip Morris Agrees To Buy Sampoerna], ''The Wall Street Journal'', 15 March 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref> Philip Morris International was recognised as a Global Top Employer for the second year in a row. The certification for 2018 from Top Employer Institute was awarded to PMI teams in 44 countries. <ref>[https://www.ibtimes.com.au/philip-morris-international-again-recognised-global-top-employer-1565108 Philip Morris International again recognised as a Global Top Employer], ''International Business Times'', 19 February 2018, Accessed 30 December 2018 </ref> In 2020, 265 Philip Morris International jobs in Switzerland will be affected by restructuring plans, of which almost two-thirds of posts may be transferred to other European sites. <ref>[https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/multinationals_restructuring-at-philip-morris-to-hit-265-jobs/45519768 Restructuring at Philip Morris to hit 265 jobs], ''Swiss Info'', 27 January 2020, Accessed 19 February 2020 </ref> As of February 2020, Philip Morris International manufactures its products in 38 countries and buys tobacco from 27 countries. <ref name="MI_CONF2020"> Philip Morris International website, [https://philipmorrisinternational.gcs-web.com/static-files/ffb61599-060b-4f4d-8811-b78e81094475 CEO Investor Forum, Strategic Investor Initiative], p.3, 24 February 2020, Accessed 27 February 2020</ref>
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On 10 December 2020, Philip Morris International announced an appointment of Chief Executive Officer, André Calantzopoulos as the company's Executive Chairman of the Board, effective May 2021. Lucio Noto will serve as the company's interim Chairman until then. The company's current COO, Jacek Olczak, will succeed Calantzopoulos as Chief Executive Officer immediately after the May meeting. <ref name=“PMI_CEO”>Business Wire, [Philip Morris International Announces Planned Leadership Succession], 10 December 2020, Accessed 11 December 2020 </ref>
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In June 2021, Philip Morris International announced it will relocate its corporate headquarters to Connecticut. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://cincodias.elpais.com/cincodias/2021/06/22/companias/1624374656_400054.html Philip Morris abre su primer ‘call center’ de IQOS en España], ''El Pais'', 22 June 2021, Accessed 11 July 2021 </ref>
  
 
===Key Executives===
 
===Key Executives===
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! style="font-weight:bold; width:40%" |Bio
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width:40%" |Bio
 
|-
 
|-
|André Calantzopoulos
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|Jacek Olczak
|Director and Chief Executive Officer  
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| Chief Executive Officer
(since 2013)
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(since May 2021)
|Calantzopoulos was named Chief Executive Officer and was elected to the Board of Directors on May 8, 2013. He served as Chief Operating Officer from Philip Morris spin-off on March 28, 2008 to May 8, 2013. Calantzopoulos was Philip Morris International’s President and Chief Executive Officer between 2002 and the date of the spin-off. After joining the company in 1985, he worked extensively across Central Europe, including as Managing Director of PM Poland and President of the Eastern European Region.
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|Prior to this appointment, he served as PMI’s Chief Operating Officer from January 2018, having formerly been Chief Financial Officer, beginning in August 2012. Mr. Olczak is committed to delivering PMI’s smoke-free future and expanding the company’s product portfolio beyond nicotine. He has been a key driver of the company’s commercial transformation, turning a primarily business-to-business company into an increasingly business-to-consumer company. Olczak joined Philip Morris Polska in 1993 as Manager, Finance and Administration. After serving as Manager, Internal Controls in 1995 in Lausanne, Switzerland, Olczak returned to Poland in 1996 where he held various positions in finance, sales, and operations. Between 2002 and 2006, Olczak worked extensively across Central Europe and the Baltic States, and in 2004 was appointed Managing Director, Poland & Baltic States. In October 2006, he became Managing Director, Germany & Austria, and from April 2009 until July 2012, he served as President of Philip Morris International’s European Union Region, responsible for managing Philip Morris International operations. From August 2012 until his current appointment, Olczak held the role of Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining Philip Morris International, Olczak worked for BDO Binder Sp. z o.o. in London and Warsaw. Olczak holds a master’s degree in economics from the University of Lodz, Poland.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/> Olczak, will succeed Calantzopoulos as Chief Executive Officer immediately after the May meeting of Board Directors.{{r|PMI_CEO}}
 
 
Calantzopoulos holds a degree in electrical engineering from Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and an MBA from INSEAD in France.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team">Philip Morris International Website, [https://www.pmi.com/who-we-are/our-leadership-team Our Leadership team], 2018, Accessed September 2018</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Martin King
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|Emmanuel Babeau
 
|Chief Financial Officer  
 
|Chief Financial Officer  
(since January 2018)
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(since May 2020)
|King joined Philip Morris International in 2003 as Managing Director of Tabaqueira SA, Philip Morris International’s Portuguese subsidiary. He was then named Managing Director, Philip Morris Management Co. Ltd in Beijing. Following Philip Morris Indonesia’s acquisition of PT HM Sampoerna Tbk in May 2005, he served as President Director of PT HM Sampoerna Tbk until April 2009. King was appointed Senior Vice President, Operations in April 2009, and President, Latin America & Canada Region in February 2014. Between 2015 and 2017, he held the position of President, Asia Region.
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|Prior to joining PMI, Babeau spent over a decade at Schneider Electric, where he served as Deputy CEO in charge of Finance and Legal Affairs. He had joined Schneider Electric as Executive Vice President Finance and a member of the Management Board in 2009. From 1993 to 2009, he worked at Pernod Ricard. Having started at the company as an Internal Auditor, and subsequently moved through several executive positions, both locally in France and abroad. As Chief Financial Officer and Group Deputy Managing Director, Babeau supervised Finance, Information Systems and Industry Administration.  He had initially started his career at Arthur Andersen in 1990. Babeau also sits on the boards of Sodexo S.A. and Sanofi S.A. He has previously been Vice Chairman of the board of Aveva plc. He holds a degree from the École Supérieure de Commerce de Paris.
 
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<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
Prior to joining Philip Morris International, King served in various positions within Philip Morris USA between 1991 and 2003.
 
 
 
A graduate of Harvard University with a bachelor’s degree in government, King also holds an MBA from the Darden School, University of Virginia.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Jacek Olczak
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|Werner Barth
|Chief Operating Officer
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|Senior Vice President,Commercial
 
(since January 2018)
 
(since January 2018)
|Olczak joined Philip Morris Polska in 1993 as Manager, Finance and Administration. After serving as Manager, Internal Controls in 1995 in Lausanne, Switzerland, Mr. Olczak returned to Poland in 1996 where he held various positions in finance, sales, and operations. Between 2002 and 2006, Olczak worked extensively across Central Europe and the Baltic States, and in 2004 was appointed Managing Director, Poland & Baltic States. In October 2006, he became Managing Director, Germany & Austria, and from April 2009 until July 2012, he served as President of Philip Morris International’s European Union Region, responsible for managing Philip Morris International operations. From August 2012 until his current appointment, Olczak held the role of Chief Financial Officer.
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|Barth joined PMI in 1990 as a Marketing Trainee at Philip Morris Germany. From 1992 until 2002 he held positions in marketing, product management, brand supervision, and group management. In 2002 Barth became Marketing Director for Philip Morris Spain and two years later Sales Director for Philip Morris Germany. He was then appointed Managing Director, Philip Morris Benelux. In 2011 Barth became Managing Director, Philip Morris Germany. He was appointed Senior Vice President, Marketing & Sales in 2015, a position he held until his current appointment. Barth holds a degree in economics from Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich. <ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 
 
Prior to joining Philip Morris International, Olczak worked for BDO Binder Sp. z o.o. in London and Warsaw.
 
 
 
Olczak holds a master’s degree in economics from the University of Lodz, Poland.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
|-
 
|Werner Barth
 
|Senior Vice President,Commercial(since January 2018)
 
|Mr. Barth joined PMI in 1990 as a Marketing Trainee at Philip Morris Germany. From 1992 until 2002 he held positions in marketing, product management, brand supervision, and group management. In 2002 Mr. Barth became Marketing Director for Philip Morris Spain and two years later Sales Director for Philip Morris Germany. He was then appointed Managing Director, Philip Morris Benelux. In 2011 Mr. Barth became Managing Director, Philip Morris Germany. He was appointed Senior Vice President, Marketing & Sales in 2015, a position he held until his current appointment
 
Mr. Barth holds a degree in economics from Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich. <ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Massimo Andolina
 
|Massimo Andolina
|Senior Vice President, Operations(since January 2018)
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|Senior Vice President, Operations
|Andolina joined Philip Morris in Lausanne in 2008 as Director, Operations Planning. He became Vice President, Operations of the Latin America & Canada Region in 2011, and moved to oversee our European Union Region’s operations two years later. In 2016, Andolina was appointed Vice President, PMI Business Transformation.
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(since January 2018)
Prior to joining PMI, Andolina held a variety of international positions in strategic marketing and general management for Tetra Pak International and in operations for R.J. Reynolds International.
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|Andolina joined Philip Morris in Lausanne in 2008 as Director, Operations Planning. He became Vice President, Operations of the Latin America & Canada Region in 2011, and moved to oversee the European Union Region’s operations two years later. In 2016, Andolina was appointed Vice President, PMI Business Transformation. Prior to joining PMI, Andolina held a variety of international positions in strategic marketing and general management for Tetra Pak International and in operations for R.J. Reynolds International. Andolina holds a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Palermo, Italy and an MBA from IMD in Lausanne, Switzerland.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 
 
Andolina holds a degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Palermo, Italy and an MBA from IMD in Lausanne, Switzerland.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Paul Riley
 
|Paul Riley
 
|President, East Asia & Australia Region  
 
|President, East Asia & Australia Region  
 
(since January 2018)
 
(since January 2018)
|Riley joined Philip Morris Australia in 1988. Over the following two decades, he held a number of positions in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan, before being named Managing Director, Serbia & Montenegro in 2010. Riley returned to Asia in 2013, when he became President of Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Corporation in the Philippines. He was appointed President of Philip Morris Japan in 2015.
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|Riley joined Philip Morris Australia in 1988. Over the following two decades, he held a number of positions in Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan, before being named Managing Director, Serbia & Montenegro in 2010. Riley returned to Asia in 2013, when he became President of Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Corporation in the Philippines. He was appointed President of Philip Morris Japan in 2015. Riley holds a degree in technology innovation and services management from the Royal Melbourne Institute, and is a graduate of Harvard Business School.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 
 
Riley holds a degree in technology innovation and services management from the Royal Melbourne Institute, and is a graduate of Harvard Business School.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Marco Mariotti
 
|Marco Mariotti
 
|President, Eastern Europe Region  
 
|President, Eastern Europe Region  
 
(since January 2018)
 
(since January 2018)
|Since joining Philip Morris International in 1997, Mariotti has held numerous leadership roles in Argentina and across Europe. He started in business development for the European Union Region and moved to Italy in 2001 as Director, Finance and then Director, Corporate Affairs. In 2005, Mariotti became Managing Director, Argentina, followed by his appointment as Managing Director, Italy in 2008. In 2010 Mariotti was named President, Russia & Belarus and became Senior Vice President, Corporate Affairs in 2015.
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|Since joining Philip Morris International in 1997, Mariotti has held numerous leadership roles in Argentina and across Europe. He started in business development for the European Union Region and moved to Italy in 2001 as Director, Finance and then Director, Corporate Affairs. In 2005, Mariotti became Managing Director, Argentina, followed by his appointment as Managing Director, Italy in 2008. In 2010 Mariotti was named President, Russia & Belarus and became Senior Vice President, Corporate Affairs in 2015. Before joining Philip Morris International, Mariotti worked in the financial sector in Switzerland. Mariotti studied economics in Lausanne, Switzerland, and holds an MBA from INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
Before joining Philip Morris International, Mariotti worked in the financial sector in Switzerland.  
 
 
 
Mariotti studied economics in Lausanne, Switzerland, and holds an MBA from INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Frederic de Wilde
 
|Frederic de Wilde
 
|President, European Union Region  
 
|President, European Union Region  
 
(since July 2015)
 
(since July 2015)
|De Wilde joined Philip Morris International in 1992 as Brand Manager L&M for Philip Morris Belgium. In 1996 he became Marketing Director for Philip Morris Spain S.L. and four years later Sales Director of Spain. He was then named Managing Director of Philip Morris Greece, where he led the acquisition and integration of the Papastratos Cigarette Manufacturing Company. In 2005 De Wilde became Managing Director of Philip Morris International’s affiliate in Italy, and from January 2008 until the end of June 2011, he held the position of President, Philip Morris Japan KK. In July 2011 de Wilde became Senior Vice President, Marketing & Sales.
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|De Wilde joined Philip Morris International in 1992 as Brand Manager L&M for Philip Morris Belgium. In 1996 he became Marketing Director for Philip Morris Spain S.L. and four years later Sales Director of Spain. He was then named Managing Director of Philip Morris Greece, where he led the acquisition and integration of the Papastratos Cigarette Manufacturing Company. In 2005 De Wilde became Managing Director of Philip Morris International’s affiliate in Italy, and from January 2008 until the end of June 2011, he held the position of President, Philip Morris Japan KK. In July 2011 de Wilde became Senior Vice President, Marketing & Sales. Prior to joining Philip Morris International, de Wilde worked at Colgate Palmolive, Belgium from 1991 to 1992 as Regional Sales Manager. De Wilde holds a degree in economics from the Université Libre de Bruxelles and a master degree in management from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 
 
Prior to joining Philip Morris International, de Wilde worked at Colgate Palmolive, Belgium from 1991 to 1992 as Regional Sales Manager.
 
 
 
De Wilde holds a degree in economics from the Université Libre de Bruxelles and a master degree in management from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Mario Masseroli
 
|Mario Masseroli
 
|President, Latin America & Canada Region  
 
|President, Latin America & Canada Region  
 
(since July, 2018)
 
(since July, 2018)
|Mr. Masseroli became President, Latin America & Canada Region in July 2018.
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|Masseroli became President, Latin America & Canada Region in July 2018. Masseroli joined Philip Morris Argentina in 1998 and served in a variety of roles in Argentina, Switzerland and New York. He was named Managing Director, Guatemala in 2006, followed by his appointment as Director, Corporate Affairs for PMI Spain in 2007. Masseroli was named Vice President, Corporate Affairs Latin America & Canada in 2009. He then went on to become Managing Director Spain and Canary Islands in 2012, adding responsibility for Portugal in April 2016, a position he held until his current appointment. Masseroli received a bachelor’s degree from the Torcuato di Tella University in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and master’s degree in business administration from the University of California at Berkeley.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
Mr. Masseroli joined Philip Morris Argentina in 1998 and served in a variety of roles in Argentina, Switzerland and New York. He was named Managing Director, Guatemala in 2006, followed by his appointment as Director, Corporate Affairs for PMI Spain in 2007. Mr. Masseroli was named Vice President, Corporate Affairs Latin America & Canada in 2009. He then went on to become Managing Director Spain and Canary Islands in 2012, adding responsibility for Portugal in April 2016, a position he held until his current appointment. Mr. Masseroli received a bachelor’s degree from the Torcuato di Tella University in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and master’s degree in business administration from the University of California at Berkeley.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Stacey Kennedy
 
|Stacey Kennedy
 
|President, South & Southeast Asia Region  
 
|President, South & Southeast Asia Region  
 
(since January 2018)
 
(since January 2018)
|Kennedy began her career with Philip Morris USA in 1995 as a Territory Sales Manager. She held a number of positions of increasing responsibility in the sales organization, until becoming Vice President Sales, Southeast Region in Atlanta in 2006. In 2010 Kennedy joined Philip Morris International’s Operations Center in Lausanne as Vice President, Sales Strategy, and in April 2013 Area Vice President, Southeast Europe. Kennedy served as Managing Director for Germany, Austria, Croatia, and Slovenia from 2015 until her current appointment.
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|Kennedy began her career with Philip Morris USA in 1995 as a Territory Sales Manager. She held a number of positions of increasing responsibility in the sales organization, until becoming Vice President Sales, Southeast Region in Atlanta in 2006. In 2010 Kennedy joined Philip Morris International’s Operations Center in Lausanne as Vice President, Sales Strategy, and in April 2013 Area Vice President, Southeast Europe. Kennedy served as Managing Director for Germany, Austria, Croatia, and Slovenia from 2015 until her current appointment. Kennedy received a bachelor degree in sociology and cultural anthropology from Randolph College in the United States, and an Executive MBA from IMD in Lausanne, Switzerland.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 
 
Kennedy received a bachelor degree in sociology and cultural anthropology from Randolph College in the United States, and an Executive MBA from IMD in Lausanne, Switzerland.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Drago Azinovic
 
|Drago Azinovic
 
|President, Middle East, Africa & Philip Morris International Duty Free  
 
|President, Middle East, Africa & Philip Morris International Duty Free  
 
(since January 2018)
 
(since January 2018)
|Azinovic joined Philip Morris Asia Limited in March 2009 as Vice President of Marketing and Sales for Philip Morris International’s Asia Region. He became President of Philip Morris Japan in July 2011, a position he held until July 31, 2012, when he was named President of the European Union Region. In July 2015 he became President, Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa and Philip Morris International Duty Free. From 1997 until 2009 Azinovic held a variety of positions at Altadis and, after the acquisition of Altadis in 2008, at [[Imperial Tobacco]]. Previously, Azinovic had worked at Procter & Gamble. Azinovic received a law degree from the University of Alcalá in Spain and an MBA from Saint Louis University in Missouri (USA).<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
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|Azinovic joined Philip Morris Asia Limited in March 2009 as Vice President of Marketing and Sales for Philip Morris International’s Asia Region. He became President of Philip Morris Japan in July 2011, a position he held until July 31, 2012, when he was named President of the European Union Region. In July 2015 he became President, Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa and Philip Morris International Duty Free. From 1997 until 2009 Azinovic held a variety of positions at Altadis and, after the acquisition of Altadis in 2008, at [[Imperial Tobacco]]. Previously, Azinovic had worked at Procter & Gamble. Azinovic received a law degree from the University of Alcalá in Spain and an MBA from Saint Louis University in Missouri (USA).<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
|-
 
|Marc S. Firestone
 
|President, External Affairs and General Counsel
 
(since January 2018)
 
|Firestone held positions from 1988 to 2003 in the law departments of Philip Morris Companies Inc. and Philip Morris International Inc. Firestone is cofounder and chairman of the Institute for Inclusion in the Legal Profession; adjunct professor of law at New York Law School; a frequent speaker on international antitrust law, diversity, and in-house legal practice; and a recipient of the Director’s Roundtable Distinguished General Counsel award. From 2012 until his current appointment, Mr. Firestone served as Philip Morris International’s Senior Vice President and General Counsel.
 
 
 
Firestone was previously Executive Vice President, Corporate and Legal Affairs and General Counsel of Kraft Foods Inc., where he served since 2003.
 
 
 
Firestone began his legal career as an attorney at Arnold & Porter in Washington, D.C. He received a BA, magna cum laude, in romance languages and philosophy from Washington & Lee University and a JD, magna cum laude, from Tulane University School of Law.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Charles Bendotti
 
|Charles Bendotti
 
|Senior Vice President, People & Culture  
 
|Senior Vice President, People & Culture  
 
(since January 2018)
 
(since January 2018)
|Bendotti joined Philip Morris International in Lausanne in 1999 as Business Analyst. From 2000 until 2006, he served in various cross-functional roles in Marketing & Sales and Business Development in different markets of the Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa, and Latin America & Canada Regions. Bendotti then became Managing Director, Ecuador & Bolivia, followed by his appointment as Vice President, Human Resources for the Latin America & Canada Region in 2008. In 2012 he was named Vice President, Human Resources Asia, a position he held until December 2016, and then Senior Vice President, Human Resources.
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|Bendotti joined Philip Morris International in Lausanne in 1999 as Business Analyst. From 2000 until 2006, he served in various cross-functional roles in Marketing & Sales and Business Development in different markets of the Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa, and Latin America & Canada Regions. Bendotti then became Managing Director, Ecuador & Bolivia, followed by his appointment as Vice President, Human Resources for the Latin America & Canada Region in 2008. In 2012 he was named Vice President, Human Resources Asia, a position he held until December 2016, and then Senior Vice President, Human Resources. Bendotti holds a master’s degree in international relations, economy, and law from the Graduate Institute of International & Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, and an Executive MBA from HEC Paris.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
Bendotti holds a master’s degree in international relations, economy, and law from the Graduate Institute of International & Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, and an Executive MBA from HEC Paris.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team" />
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Frank de Rooij
 
|Frank de Rooij
 
|Vice President, Treasury and Corporate Finance (since December 2016)
 
|Vice President, Treasury and Corporate Finance (since December 2016)
|Mr. de Rooij joined Philip Morris Holland in 1987 as Assistant Treasurer. From 1994 to 1998 he served as Assistant Cash Manager at the European Treasury Center of Philip Morris Companies in Zug, Switzerland. Between 1998 and 2001, Mr. de Rooij worked as Regional Treasurer for the Philip Morris Eastern European region. He then held various positions in PMI’s Group Treasury from 2002 to 2013, before he became Director Treasury and Corporate Finance. In December 2016, Mr. de Rooij was appointed Vice President Treasury and Corporate Finance.
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|de Rooij joined Philip Morris Holland in 1987 as Assistant Treasurer. From 1994 to 1998 he served as Assistant Cash Manager at the European Treasury Center of Philip Morris Companies in Zug, Switzerland. Between 1998 and 2001, de Rooij worked as Regional Treasurer for the Philip Morris Eastern European region. He then held various positions in PMI’s Group Treasury from 2002 to 2013, before he became Director Treasury and Corporate Finance. In December 2016, de Rooij was appointed Vice President Treasury and Corporate Finance. de Rooij holds a degree in business economics of the University of Breda (H.E.A.O.), The Netherlands. <ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
Mr. de Rooij holds a degree in business economics of the University of Breda (H.E.A.O.), The Netherlands.
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|-
 +
|Martin King
 +
|CEO, PMI America
 +
(Since May 2020)
 +
|King joined Philip Morris International in 2003 as Managing Director of Tabaqueira SA, PMI’s Portuguese subsidiary. He was then named Managing Director, Philip Morris Management Co. Ltd in Beijing. Following Philip Morris Indonesia’s acquisition of PT HM Sampoerna Tbk in May 2005, he served as President Director of PT HM Sampoerna Tbk until April 2009. King was appointed Senior Vice President, Operations in April 2009, and President, Latin America & Canada Region in February 2014. Between 2015 and 2017, he held the position of President, Asia Region. He then served as PMI's Chief Financial Officer from 2018 to 2020. Prior to joining PMI, King served in various positions within Philip Morris USA between 1991 and 2003. A graduate of Harvard University with a bachelor’s degree in government, King also holds an MBA from the Darden School, University of Virginia.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Michael Kunst
 
|Michael Kunst
 
|Senior Vice President, Commercial Transformation (Since January 2019)
 
|Senior Vice President, Commercial Transformation (Since January 2019)
|Prior to joining Philip Morris International, Mr. Kunst was a Senior Partner of consulting firm Bain & Company in Munich since 2009. He was leading Bain’s Healthcare Practice in EMEA and has worked with a broad set of clients on issues of growth strategy, commercial capability building, change management and organizational effectiveness. Before his tenure at Bain & Company, Mr. Kunst was a partner at Monitor Company from 1998 to 2009. He served as Head of Planning and Reporting at Arcor from 1996 to 1998
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|Prior to joining Philip Morris International, Kunst was a Senior Partner of consulting firm Bain & Company in Munich since 2009. He was leading Bain’s Healthcare Practice in EMEA and has worked with a broad set of clients on issues of growth strategy, commercial capability building, change management and organizational effectiveness. Before his tenure at Bain & Company, Kunst was a partner at Monitor Company from 1998 to 2009. He served as Head of Planning and Reporting at Arcor from 1996 to 1998. Kunst holds a Master of Business Administration Degree from European Business School in Oestrich-Winkel in Germany. He has studied both in Europe and the USA. <ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
Mr. Kunst holds a Master of Business Administration Degree from European Business School in Oestrich-Winkel in Germany. He has studied both in Europe and the USA.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Andreas Kurali
 
|Andreas Kurali
 
|Vice President and Controller (Since March 2015)
 
|Vice President and Controller (Since March 2015)
|Mr. Kurali joined Philip Morris Germany in September 1993 as finance trainee and served in subsequent years at our German affiliate in various finance roles with increasing responsibilities, including planning and budgeting, fiscal affairs, accounting and reporting, treasury, and tax. In early 2003 he became Director, Finance and Information Systems for our Worldwide Duty Free business, based in Switzerland, followed by an assignment in our Latin American Region as Director Finance, Mexico from 2005 to 2008. Subsequently, Mr. Kurali was appointed Vice President, Finance for our Latin America & Canada Region, a position he held until 2012 before transferring as Vice President, Finance to our Asia Region where he worked until 2014. 
+
|Kurali joined Philip Morris Germany in September 1993 as finance trainee and served in subsequent years at German affiliate in various finance roles with increasing responsibilities, including planning and budgeting, fiscal affairs, accounting and reporting, treasury, and tax. In early 2003 he became Director, Finance and Information Systems for Worldwide Duty Free business, based in Switzerland, followed by an assignment in Latin American Region as Director Finance, Mexico from 2005 to 2008. Subsequently, Kurali was appointed Vice President, Finance for Latin America & Canada Region, a position he held until 2012 before transferring as Vice President, Finance to Asia Region where he worked until 2014.  Kurali holds a degree in business administration as Diplom Kaufmann from the University of Mannheim, Germany.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
Mr. Kurali holds a degree in business administration as Diplom Kaufmann from the University of Mannheim, Germany.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Deepak Mishra
 
|Deepak Mishra
|Chief Strategy Officer (Since September 2018)
+
|President Americas Region (Since June 2021)
|Prior to joining PMI, Mr. Mishra held the role of Managing Director, Portfolio Operations at Centerbridge Partners, a private equity firm from 2014, where he led commercial, operational and digital transformations in investments in consumer services, renewable energy and distribution sectors. Prior to Centerbridge, Mr. Mishra was a Partner at McKinsey & Co in London and part of their Consumer Goods, Retail and Operations leadership teams from 2001 to 2014, supporting clients in the FMCG, retail and private equity industries on commercial and operational transformations. Mr. Mishra started his career as a marketing professional with Procter & Gamble in 1996, and then spent 4 years at Accenture's strategy practice in India and Eastern Europe prior to joining McKinsey
+
|Prior to joining PMI, Mishra held the role of Managing Director, Portfolio Operations at Centerbridge Partners, a private equity firm from 2014, where he led commercial, operational and digital transformations in investments in consumer services, renewable energy and distribution sectors. Prior to Centerbridge, Mishra was a Partner at McKinsey & Co in London and part of their Consumer Goods, Retail and Operations leadership teams from 2001 to 2014, supporting clients in the FMCG, retail and private equity industries on commercial and operational transformations. Mishra started his career as a marketing professional with Procter & Gamble in 1996, and then spent 4 years at Accenture's strategy practice in India and Eastern Europe prior to joining McKinsey. Mishra holds an undergraduate degree in Computer Science from BITS Pilani, India, and an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
Mr. Mishra holds an undergraduate degree in Computer Science from BITS Pilani, India, and an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow, India.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Marian Salzman  
 
|Marian Salzman  
 
|Senioe Vice President, Global Communications (Since April 2018)
 
|Senioe Vice President, Global Communications (Since April 2018)
|Prior to joining Philip Morris International, Ms. Salzman headed Havas PR North America since 2009. She first held the position of President and then became Havas PR’s Chief Executive Officer in 2011. She co-created and chaired the Global Collective, the Havas PR operation across several continents. Ms. Salzman was Chief Marketing Officer at PR firm Porter Novelli from 2008 to 2009, CMO at JWT Worldwide from 2005 to 2008, and Executive Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer at Euro RSCG Worldwide (Havas) from 2001 to 2004. In the early 1990s, she co-founded CyberDialogue, where she pioneered the use of online focus groups for social research.
+
|Prior to joining Philip Morris International, Salzman headed Havas PR North America since 2009. She first held the position of President and then became Havas PR’s Chief Executive Officer in 2011. She co-created and chaired the Global Collective, the Havas PR operation across several continents. Salzman was Chief Marketing Officer at PR firm Porter Novelli from 2008 to 2009, CMO at JWT Worldwide from 2005 to 2008, and Executive Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer at Euro RSCG Worldwide (Havas) from 2001 to 2004. In the early 1990s, she co-founded CyberDialogue, where she pioneered the use of online focus groups for social research. Salzman holds a degree in sociology and graduated with honors from Brown University.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/> In February 2021 Salzman divested USD 169k worth of shares in the company, at an average price of US$84.39 each. That sale was 48 percent of her holding. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210311080550if_/https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/senior-vice-president-of-global-communications-marian-salzman-just-sold-a-bunch-of-shares Senior Vice President of Global Communications Marian Salzman Just Sold A Bunch Of Shares In Philip Morris International Inc. (NYSE:PM)], ''Nasdaq'', 10 February 2021, Accessed 11 March 2021</ref>
Ms. Salzman holds a degree in sociology and graduated with honors from Brown University.
 
|-
 
|Jaime Suarez
 
|Chief Digital Officer (Since January 2018)
 
|Mr. Suarez joined Philip Morris Mexico in 1999 as Business Planning Analyst. From 2001 until 2015, Mr. Suarez served in roles of increasing responsibility in a variety of areas, from business development to trade marketing and, more recently, sales, in the Latin America & Canada Region, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, and Switzerland. In 2015 Mr. Suarez was appointed Vice President, Consumer Channel Strategy & Event Marketing, and became Vice President, Digital Strategy Reduced-Risk Products in 2016. 
 
Mr. Suarez holds a degree in economics from the Ibero-American University in Mexico City.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Michael Voegele
 
|Michael Voegele
 
|Chief Technology Officer (since February 2019)
 
|Chief Technology Officer (since February 2019)
|Before joining Philip Morris International, Mr. Voegele was working for Adidas from 2011 to 2018. There, he first served as VP Group Functions and Head of Enterprise Architecture and went on to become Senior Vice President IT Sales. Since 2015, he has served as Global Chief Information Officer, and was appointed to the core leadership team in January 2017. In this role, he initiated the digital transformation of Adidas and reshaped the IT Organization and Strategy, making it more consumer centric and supportive of innovation throughout the company. Before his tenure at Adidas, he spent more than a decade at SAP from 2000 to 2011. 
+
|Before joining Philip Morris International, Voegele was working for Adidas from 2011 to 2018. There, he first served as VP Group Functions and Head of Enterprise Architecture and went on to become Senior Vice President IT Sales. Since 2015, he has served as Global Chief Information Officer, and was appointed to the core leadership team in January 2017. In this role, he initiated the digital transformation of Adidas and reshaped the IT Organization and Strategy, making it more consumer centric and supportive of innovation throughout the company. Before his tenure at Adidas, he spent more than a decade at SAP from 2000 to 2011.  Voegele holds an engineering degree from Universität Karlsruhe in Germany.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
Mr. Voegele holds an engineering degree from Universität Karlsruhe in Germany.
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Jerry Whitson
+
|Stefano Volpetti
|Deputy General Counsel and Corporate Secretary (Since January 2011)
+
|Chief Consumer Officer
|Mr. Whitson joined PMI in September 2010 as Vice President and Deputy Corporate Secretary. Before joining the company, Mr. Whitson was a Senior Partner at the law firm of Hunton & Williams LLP, where he served for 30 years, lastly as the head of the firm’s Business Practice Group and as a member of its Executive Committee. During his tenure with Hunton & Williams LLP he advised leading multinational corporations on U.S. and international mergers and acquisitions, capital market transactions, corporate governance, and SEC matters. Mr. Whitson has in-depth knowledge of the tobacco and consumer-products industries, having served as outside corporate counsel to our former parent, Altria, for 25 years, including representing that company and its subsidiaries in the acquisitions of Jacobs Suchard, Nabisco, and UST, the Kraft IPO and spin-off, and the spin-off of Philip Morris International.
+
|Volpetti previously worked at Procter & Gamble for 22 years, where he progressed through various roles with increasing responsibility locally in Italy and Mexico, and on a regional level for the European market. In 2013, he became Vice President for a multi-functional, global business unit at P&G. He is an experienced marketer with broad experience in commercial roles as well, having obtained a winning track record with consumers in both developed and developing markets. Volpetti specializes in consumer centric marketing programs, business model transformation, digital acceleration, and disruptive innovation. He also worked at Luxottica Eyewear as Chief Marketing Officer in 2015. Volpetti holds a degree in Business Administration from Luiss University in Rome.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
A member of the New York and Virginia bars, Mr. Whitson earned his law degree from Boston University School of Law and his undergraduate degree from the State University of New York at Stony Brook.
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Miroslaw Zielinski
+
|Bin Li
|Chief New Ventures Officer (fmr. President of Science & Innovation)
+
|Chief Product Officer
|Mr. Zielinski joined Philip Morris International as a merchandiser in 1991 in his native Poland. He progressed through a number of senior sales and marketing positions at Philip Morris Polska before moving to Kiev, where he was appointed Managing Director of PMI’s Ukrainian affiliate in 1999. In 2002 he became Managing Director, Worldwide Duty Free and served as President, Latin America & Canada from April 2003 until March 2010, when he was named President, Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa Region and PMI Duty Free. In July 2015 Mr. Zielinski was appointed President, Reduced-Risk Products. 
+
|Before joining PMI, Li spent nearly a decade at HARMAN International in Shenzhen in China, where he had progressed through several roles as general manager and vice president for various functions in consumer product development and operations. He had started his career as a software engineer for Brother International Corporate in 1996, and worked in various engineering positions in the technology sector in the US until 2004. In 2004 Li went back to China to join Philips Consumer Electronics. After two years as manager at Philips Consumer Electronics, Li served as Chief Executive Officer of HongEn Education from 2006 to 2009. In his role as PMI’s Chief Product Officer, he is responsible for the development of innovative smoke-free product pipeline and related technology strategies, continuous improvement and extensions of existing platforms and the manufacturing of electronic devices. Li has a Bachelor degree in engineering from Tsinghua University. He also holds a Master’s degree in computer science from Colorado State University, as well as an MBA from Kellogg-HKUST Executive MBA.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
Mr. Zielinski has a master’s degree in economy and foreign trade from the Warsaw School of Statistics and Economics.
+
|-
 +
|Gregoire Verdeaux
 +
|Senior VP, External Affairs
 +
(Since September 2020)
 +
|Muenster joined PMI in 2011 as Director, Market and Consumer Research before being appointed Vice President, Market Research in 2012, a pVerdeaux joined Philip Morris International from Hering Schuppener, where he was a partner. Prior to this position, he was Group International Policy Director at Vodafone from 2014 to 2019. In this role, he built up a new team focusing on enabling the company with integrated regulatory strategies, and oversaw the coordination of policy, lobbying, antitrust, compliance, and other activities while supporting markets in Europe, Africa and Asia. He was European policy director at Electricité De France (EDF) between 2011 and 2014. He served as Deputy Head of Cabinet for the President of France from 2008 to 2011. Verdeaux held several positions at the United Nations from 2005 to 2008. He served as Europe and Legal adviser to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2004 to 2005. Prior to this position, he was a Cabinet adviser at the European Commission since 2001. He was Administrator of the French Senate between 1998 and 2000, and adviser to the French Minister for European Affairs from 1995 to 1997. Verdeaux holds degrees from Université d’Auvergne, University of Oklahoma and Sciences Po. <ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 +
|-
 +
|Silke Muenster
 +
|Chief Diversity Officer
 +
(Since March 2020)
 +
|Muenster joined PMI in 2011 as Director, Market and Consumer Research before being appointed Vice President, Market Research in 2012, a position she held until her current appointment. Prior to PMI, Muenster spent 12 years in leading research roles at The Coca-Cola Company, four years at Apollinaris & Schweppes and four years at Marbert Kosmetik. Muenster began her career at Research International and holds a degree in mathematics from Ruhr University, Bochum in Germany. <ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 +
|-
 +
|Suzanne Rich Folsom
 +
|Senior VP and General Counsel (since July 2020)
 +
|Rich Folsom joined Philip Morris International in July 2020 with a combination of corporate, legal, and international business expertise. Previously, as General Counsel, Chief Compliance Officer, and SVP of Government Affairs and Global Public Policy at U.S. Steel, Folsom spearheaded the successful fair trade campaign to reinvigorate the steel industry and oversaw the company’s legal, compliance, and labor relations groups, in addition to leading the operational performance of the company’s real estate division. At AIG, she played a critical role in the company’s response to the financial crisis as Chief Regulatory and Compliance Officer and Deputy General Counsel. Earlier, Folsom was Counselor to the President and Director of Institutional Integrity at the World Bank; served as the General Counsel who drove transformation at ACADEMI post-scandal; was the private secretary to the Queen of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan; and held key roles with more than one U.S. presidential first family. The recipient of multiple awards for legal and governance contributions, Folsom was named a Top 50 General Counsel by The National Law Journal and received the U.K.-based Women in Compliance 2020 Lifetime Achievement Award. She has also been recognized for her unwavering commitment to diversity and inclusion. Folsom holds degrees from Georgetown University Law Center and Duke University and has served on both private and public company boards. <ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 +
|-
 +
|Jorge Insuasty
 +
|Chief Life Sciences Officer (since January 2021)
 +
| Insuastypreviously spent over two decades in clinical drug development, including leading Global Development for Sanofi. More recently, he served as Global Franchise Head of Immunology, Oncology, Neurology at Sanofi Genzyme. Insuasty began his career at Bristol Myers Squibb, holding positions of increasing responsibility in cardiovascular, analgesia, and rheumatology development, both in Europe and in the U.S. He joined Novartis Consumer Health as Senior Vice President Research and Development and then moved to lead Novartis Neurology and Ophthalmology Development Franchises. Insuasty has directed the development of numerous innovative breakthrough medicines in immunology, neurology, cardiovascular and metabolism, oncology, ophthalmology and rare diseases. Insuasty received his MD from Université de Paris and began his career as a hospital cardiologist in France.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
+
Philip Morris International the appointment of Gregoire Verdeaux to the position of Senior Vice President External Affairs effective September 1, 2020. <ref>[https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200824005301/en/Philip-Morris-International-Names-New-SVP-External Philip Morris International Names New SVP, External Affairs, to Accelerate Its Journey to a Smoke-Free Future], ''Business Wire'', 24 August 2020, Accessed 27 August 2020</ref> In April 2019, Philip Morris International promoted J.B. Simko to Vice President of External Affairs. <ref>[https://business.financialpost.com/pmn/press-releases-pmn/business-wire-news-releases-pmn/philip-morris-international-bolsters-washington-d-c-presence-with-key-staff-appointments Philip Morris International Bolsters Washington, D.C., Presence with Key Staff Appointments], ''Financial Post'', 2 April 2019, Accessed 11 April 2019 </ref>
In a press release sent to the media on 22nd May 2019, Philip Morris International announced a creation of four new roles - Chief Consumer Officer (Stefano Volpetti), Chief Life Sciences Officer (Dr. John O’Mullane), Chief Product Officer (TBC) and Chief New Ventures Officer (Mirek Zielinski). All four executive positions will report to the company's CEO André Calantzopoulos. <ref> [https://finance.yahoo.com/news/philip-morris-international-strengthens-organizational-184400779.html Philip Morris International Strengthens Organizational Capabilities to Realize Its Vision for a Smoke-Free Future], ''Yahoo'', 22 May 2019, Accessed 22 May 2019 </ref>
 
 
 
In April 2019, Philip Morris International promoted J.B. Simko to Vice President of External Affairs. <ref>[https://business.financialpost.com/pmn/press-releases-pmn/business-wire-news-releases-pmn/philip-morris-international-bolsters-washington-d-c-presence-with-key-staff-appointments Philip Morris International Bolsters Washington, D.C., Presence with Key Staff Appointments], ''Financial Post'', 2 April 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
 
  
 
===Board Members===
 
===Board Members===
Line 165: Line 135:
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width:40%" |Bio
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width:40%" |Bio
 
|-
 
|-
|Louis C. Camilleri
+
|André Calantzopoulos
|Former Chairman of the Board
+
|Executive Chairman
|On July 21, 2018 it was announced Ferrari appointed Camilleri as next CEO. <ref>[https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-07-21/ferrari-proposes-camilleri-to-replace-ailing-marchionne-as-ceo Ferrari Enlists Philip Morris Veteran Camilleri as Next CEO], ''Bloomberg'', July 2018, Accessed September 2018</ref>
+
|Calantzopoulos is the Executive Chairman of the Board of Directors of Philip Morris International (PMI). During a career spanning over 35 years at PMI—most recently as Chief Executive Officer (CEO)— Calantzopoulos began the company’s smoke-free transformation, accelerating the development and commercialization of better, science-based alternatives for those adults who would otherwise continue to smoke. As CEO, he oversaw one of the world’s leading product portfolios in both combustible and smoke-free products, cultivated an outstanding management team, and built a high-performing, fast-learning organization. Calantzopoulos was appointed CEO and elected to the Board of Directors on May 8, 2013, and served as CEO until he assumed his current position on May 5, 2021. Prior to this, he was the company’s Chief Operating Officer following PMI’s spin-off from Altria Group, Inc. on March 28, 2008. He was PMI’s President and CEO from 2002 until the spin-off. After joining the company in 1985, he worked extensively across Central Europe, including as Managing Director of PM Poland and President of the Eastern European Region. Calantzopoulos holds a degree in electrical engineering from Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and an MBA from INSEAD in France. He is a member of the Consumer Relationships and Regulation, Finance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 
 
Camilleri was Philip Morris International Chairman, having served as the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer from the spin-off in 2008 until the 2013 Annual Meeting of Shareholders. Mr. Camilleri remained Chairman and an employee of the company following the 2013 Annual Meeting. He retired effective December 31, 2014, and continues to serve as a non-employee Chairman. Before the spin-off, Mr. Camilleri was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Altria Group, Inc., positions he had held since 2002. From 1996 to 2002, he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Altria Group, Inc. He had been employed continuously by Altria Group, Inc. and its subsidiaries (including Philip Morris International Inc.) in various capacities since 1978. Camilleri is a director of América Móvil, S.A.B. de C.V. and Ferrari N.V. He previously served on the Board of Telmex International SAB from 2009 to 2011. Camilleri was a director of Kraft Foods Inc. from 2001 to 2007 and was Kraft’s Chairman from 2002 to 2007.<ref name="pmiexecwebref">Philip Morris International Website, [https://www.pmi.com/our-business/about-us/corporate-governance/board-of-directors Board of Directors], 2018, Accessed September 2018</ref>  
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Massimo Ferragamo
+
|Jacek Olczak
|Director
+
| Director and Chief Executive Officer
|Ferragamo has served as Chairman of Ferragamo USA Inc. since 2000, having previously served as President of that company since 1985. He is also Vice President of the Lungarno Hotel Group and Executive Vice President of the Ferragamo Foundation. Ferragamo is a director of Ferragamo Finanziaria S.p.A. and served on the board of directors of Yum! Brands, Inc. from 1997 until 2016. Ferragamo is a member of the Finance and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
+
(since May 2021)
 +
|Prior to this appointment, he served as PMI’s Chief Operating Officer from January 2018, having formerly been Chief Financial Officer, beginning in August 2012. MOlczak is committed to delivering PMI’s smoke-free future and expanding the company’s product portfolio beyond nicotine. He has been a key driver of the company’s commercial transformation, turning a primarily business-to-business company into an increasingly business-to-consumer company. Olczak joined Philip Morris Polska in 1993 as Manager, Finance and Administration. After serving as Manager, Internal Controls in 1995 in Lausanne, Switzerland, Olczak returned to Poland in 1996 where he held various positions in finance, sales, and operations. Between 2002 and 2006, Olczak worked extensively across Central Europe and the Baltic States, and in 2004 was appointed Managing Director, Poland & Baltic States. In October 2006, he became Managing Director, Germany & Austria, and from April 2009 until July 2012, he served as President of Philip Morris International’s European Union Region, responsible for managing Philip Morris International operations. From August 2012 until his current appointment, Olczak held the role of Chief Financial Officer. Prior to joining Philip Morris International, Olczak worked for BDO Binder Sp. z o.o. in London and Warsaw. Olczak holds a master’s degree in economics from the University of Lodz, Poland.<ref name="PMI_our_leadership_team"/> Olczak, will succeed Calantzopoulos as Chief Executive Officer immediately after the May meeting of Board Directors.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Werner Geissler
 
|Werner Geissler
 
|Director
 
|Director
|Geissler became an Operating Partner of Advent International in 2015. He previously served as Vice Chairman and Special Advisor to the Chairman and CEO of Procter and Gamble until his retirement in January 2015. He joined that company in 1979 and served in various capacities, including President, Northeast Asia, from 2001 to 2004, Group President, Central and Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa, from 2004 to 2007, and Vice Chairman, Global Operations, from 2007 to 2014. Mr. Geissler is a director of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. He is Chair of the Compensation and Leadership Development Committee and a member of the Audit, Finance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
+
|Geissler became an Operating Partner of Advent International in 2015. He previously served as Vice Chairman and Special Advisor to the Chairman and CEO of Procter and Gamble until his retirement in January 2015. He joined that company in 1979 and served in various capacities, including President, Northeast Asia, from 2001 to 2004, Group President, Central and Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa, from 2004 to 2007, and Vice Chairman, Global Operations, from 2007 to 2014. Geissler is a director of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. He is Chair of the Compensation and Leadership Development Committee and a member of the Audit, Finance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
|-
 
|Jennifer Li
 
|Director
 
|Li currently serves as Chief Executive Officer and Managing Partner of Changcheng Investment Partners, Baidu's newly initiated growth fund. She previously served as Chief Executive Officer and General Managing Director of Baidu Capital, the investment arm of Baidu, Inc. Li joined Baidu, Inc., the largest internet search engine in China and the third-largest independent search engine in the world, in 2008, as Chief Financial Officer, responsible for a wide range of corporate functions, including Finance, Human Resources, International Operations, Marketing, Communications, and Purchasing. From 1994 to 2008, she held a number of senior finance positions at various General Motors companies in China, Singapore, the United States, and Canada, rising to Chief Financial Officer of GM’s business in China and Financial Controller of the North American Operations for GMAC. Li is a director of Flex Ltd. She is the Chair of the Audit Committee and a member of the Finance and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Lisa Hook
 
|Lisa Hook
Line 193: Line 158:
 
|Kalpana Morparia
 
|Kalpana Morparia
 
|Director
 
|Director
|Ms. Morparia assumed her current position as CEO South and South East Asia for J.P. Morgan Chase in April 2016, having previously served as CEO of J.P. Morgan India since 2008. She is a member of J.P. Morgan’s Asia Pacific Management Committee. Prior to joining J.P. Morgan India, Ms. Morparia served as Joint Managing Director of ICICI Bank, India’s second-largest bank, from 2001 to 2007 and the Vice Chair of ICICI’s insurance and asset management business from 2007 to 2008. Ms. Morparia is a director of Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. and Hindustan Unilever Limited. She is Chair of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and is a member of the Finance and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
+
|Morparia assumed her current position as CEO South and South East Asia for J.P. Morgan Chase in April 2016, having previously served as CEO of J.P. Morgan India since 2008. She is a member of J.P. Morgan’s Asia Pacific Management Committee. Prior to joining J.P. Morgan India, Morparia served as Joint Managing Director of ICICI Bank, India’s second-largest bank, from 2001 to 2007 and the Vice Chair of ICICI’s insurance and asset management business from 2007 to 2008. Morparia is a director of Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd. and Hindustan Unilever Limited. She is Chair of the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee and is a member of the Finance and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
|-
 
|Lucio A. Noto
 
|Director
 
|Noto assumed his current position as Managing Partner of Midstream Partners, LLC in March 2001. He retired as Vice Chairman of ExxonMobil Corporation in January 2001, a position he had held since the merger of the Exxon and Mobil companies in November 1999. Before the merger, Noto was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Mobil Corporation. Noto had been employed by Mobil continuously since 1962. Mr. Noto is a director of Penske Automotive Group, Inc. He also served on the boards of IBM from 1995 to 2008, Altria Group, Inc. from 1998 to 2008, Shinsei Bank from 2005 to 2008, Commercial International Bank from 2006 to 2009, and RHJ International S.A. from 2011 to 2015. MNoto is the Presiding Director, and a member of the Audit, Compensation and Leadership Development, Finance, and Nominating and Corporate Governance Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Frederik Paulsen
 
|Frederik Paulsen
 
|Director
 
|Director
|Dr. Paulsen has been Chairman of the Ferring Group, a research-driven, specialty biopharmaceutical group since 1988, having joined that company in 1976. Dr. Paulsen is a member of the boards of MGIMO University in Moscow, Russia, and the Pro Universitate of the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel, Germany, and a trustee of the Salk Institute of Biological Research in La Jolla, California, USA. Dr. Paulsen is a member of the Finance and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
+
|Paulsen has been Chairman of the Ferring Group, a research-driven, specialty biopharmaceutical group since 1988, having joined that company in 1976. Paulsen is a member of the boards of MGIMO University in Moscow, Russia, and the Pro Universitate of the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel, Germany, and a trustee of the Salk Institute of Biological Research in La Jolla, California, USA. Paulsen is a member of the Finance and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Robert B. Polet
 
|Robert B. Polet
Line 207: Line 168:
 
|Polet is currently serving as Chairman of Rituals Cosmetics Enterprise B.V. He was Chairman of Safilo Group S.p.A. from 2011 to 2017, and President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Management Board of the Gucci Group from 2004 to 2011. Previously, Polet spent 26 years in the Unilever Group in a variety of executive roles, including President of Unilever’s Worldwide Ice Cream and Frozen Foods division, Chairman of Unilever Malaysia, Chairman of Van den Bergh and Executive Vice President of Unilever’s European Home and Personal Care division. He is a director of Safilo Group S.p.A., William Grant & Sons Limited, and Arica Holding B.V. Polet serves on the Compensation and Leadership Development, Finance, Nominating and Corporate Governance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 
|Polet is currently serving as Chairman of Rituals Cosmetics Enterprise B.V. He was Chairman of Safilo Group S.p.A. from 2011 to 2017, and President, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Management Board of the Gucci Group from 2004 to 2011. Previously, Polet spent 26 years in the Unilever Group in a variety of executive roles, including President of Unilever’s Worldwide Ice Cream and Frozen Foods division, Chairman of Unilever Malaysia, Chairman of Van den Bergh and Executive Vice President of Unilever’s European Home and Personal Care division. He is a director of Safilo Group S.p.A., William Grant & Sons Limited, and Arica Holding B.V. Polet serves on the Compensation and Leadership Development, Finance, Nominating and Corporate Governance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 
|-
 
|-
|Stephen M. Wolf
+
|Bonin Bough
 +
|Director
 +
|Previously one of the youngest C-suite executives in a Fortune 50 company, Bough has been responsible for some of the most successful industry transformations and the rapid growth of several of the world’s best brands, including Oreo, Cadbury, Pepsi, Gatorade, and Frito-Lay. Bough has served as Chief Growth and Marketing Officer of Sundial Brands (Unilever); Chief Media and E-commerce Officer of Mondelez International; Vice President, Global Media and Consumer Engagement of Kraft Foods Group; and Chief Digital Officer of PepsiCo. He was a board member at SITO from 2018 to 2020. He is the founder of Bonin Ventures, a growth accelerator.
 +
Consistently at the forefront of innovation thinking and execution, Bough is recognized as a top mobile marketer and is a regular keynote speaker. He has been inducted into the AAF Advertising Hall of Achievement and has been named to Fortune’s 40 Under 40, Fast Company’s 100 Most Creative People in Business, the EBONY Power 100, and The Internationalist’s Internationalists of the Year. <ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 +
|-
 +
|Michel Combes
 +
|Director
 +
|Combes currently serves as President of SoftBank Group International, a privately held subsidiary of SoftBank Group Corp., and oversees several SoftBank portfolio companies. From 2018 to 2020, he was Chief Financial Officer and then President and CEO, and a member of the Board of Directors of Sprint Corporation. From 2015 to 2017, he served as CEO and Chief Operating Officer of Altice USA, Inc., and Chairman and CEO of SFR Group. From 2013 to 2015, Combes served as CEO of Alcatel-Lucent. Previously, Combes was CEO of Vodafone Europe, Chairman and CEO of TDF Group (Télédiffusion de France), an executive at France Telecom, and has held several positions within the French Government. Combes is a director of Assystem and F5 Networks, Inc. He previously served on the board of MTS (Mobile TeleSystems) from 2013 to 2018. Combes is a member of the Audit, Finance, Nominating and Corporate Governance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 +
|-
 +
Juan José Daboub
 
|Director
 
|Director
|Wolf has been Managing Partner of Alpilles, LLC since 2003. Previously, he was Chairman of US Airways Group from 2001 to 2003, and Chief Executive Officer of US Airways, Inc. from 1996 to 1998. Prior to joining US Airways, he had served since 1994 as senior advisor in the investment banking firm of Lazard Frères & Co., LLC. From 1987 to 1994, he was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of UAL Corporation and United Air Lines, Inc. Wolf is Chairman of the Advisory Board of Trilantic Capital Partners and served as Chairman of R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company from 2004 to 2014. Wolf served as a director of Altria Group, Inc. from 1993 to 2008 and as a director of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles N.V. from 2009 to 2017. He is a trustee emeritus of the Brookings Institute. Wolf is a member of the Audit, Compensation and Leadership Development, Finance, Nominating and Corporate Governance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
+
|Juan José Daboub, Ph.D., has been serving as the Chairman, President and CEO of The Daboub Partnership, a business consulting company, since 2010. He has been the Vice Chairman of The Dorado Group LLC, a private investment company, since 2014, and the Adviser and Founding CEO of the Global Adaptation Institute, a foundation dedicated to the understanding of climate change, since 2010. Since 1989, he has co-owned several companies in Latin America, including companies involving food production, biodegradable packaging materials manufacturing, and the distribution of internationally known brands. From 2012 to 2014, Daboub was Chair of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Climate Change and Managing Director of the World Bank Group from 2006 to 2010. From 1992 to 2004, Daboub held several senior positions within the government of El Salvador, including as Minister of Finance and Chief-of-Staff to the President. Daboub is currently serving as a board member of K&M Advisors, a finance and technical advisory firm, Tortoise Acquisition Corp. II, a special purpose acquisition company in the sustainable energy sector, and Grupo Financiero Ficohsa, S.A., a Central American bank. He is a member of the Compensation and Leadership Development, Finance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 
|-
 
|-
 +
|Lucio A. Noto
 +
|Lead Independent Director
 +
|Noto assumed his current position as Managing Partner of Midstream Partners, LLC, a company that invests in liquid natural gas projects, in March 2001. He retired as Vice Chairman of ExxonMobil Corporation in January 2001, a position he had held since the merger of the Exxon and Mobil companies in November 1999. Before the merger, Noto was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Mobil Corporation. Noto had been employed by Mobil continuously since 1962. Noto served as a director of Penske Automotive Group, Inc. from 2001 to 2020. He also served on the boards of IBM from 1995 to 2008, Altria Group, Inc. from 1998 to 2008, Shinsei Bank from 2005 to 2008, Commercial International Bank from 2006 to 2009 and RHJ International S.A., a financial services company, from 2011 to 2015. Noto was the Presiding Director of the Board of Directors of PMI until December 9, 2020. On December 10, 2020, he became Interim Chairman of the Board, following the retirement of our then-Chairman, Louis C. Camilleri. Noto is chair of the Audit Committee, and a member of the Compensation and Leadership Development, Consumer Relationships and Regulation, Finance, Nominating and Corporate Governance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees.<ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 +
|-
 +
|Shlomo Yanai
 +
|Director
 +
|Yanai has been serving as Chairman of the Board of Lumenis Ltd., a medical devices company, since 2020. Yanai has served as Senior Advisor to Moelis & Company, an investment bank, since 2016. From 2006 to 2012, he was President and Chief Executive Officer of Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries Ltd. Prior to joining Teva, Yanai was CEO of Adama Ltd. from 2002 to 2006. Yanai has been a Board member at Amneal Pharmaceuticals, Inc. since 2019, and W.R. Grace and Company, a specialty chemicals company, since 2018. He is also serving as a member of the Advisory Board at CVC Capital Partners, a private equity firm, a position he assumed in 2015. Yanai has also served as either Chairman of the board or a board member of the following pharmaceutical companies: Cambrex Corp., Protalix Biotherapeutics, Inc., PDL BioPharm, Inc., Perrigo plc, and Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Yanai was also a member of the Board of Elisra Group, an electronic device company, from 2002 to 2005, and Bank Leumi, Israel’s second-largest bank, from 2004 to 2007. Yanai received Israel’s Medal of Valor in 1973, and served for 32 years with the Israeli Defense Forces in a variety of leadership roles, and retired with the rank of Major General. He is a member of the Finance, Nominating and Corporate Governance, and Product Innovation and Regulatory Affairs Committees. <ref name="pmiexecwebref"/>
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 +
===Forecast===
 +
In June 2021, the Board of Directors of Philip Morris International authorized a new share repurchase program of up to $7 billion, with target spending of USD 5 to 7 billion over a three-year period expected to commence after the company’s second-quarter 2021 earnings call. <ref> Business Wire, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210611005251/en/Philip-Morris-International-PMI-Announces-New-Three-Year-Share-Repurchase-Program-of-up-to-7-Billion-With-Target-Spending-of-5-to-7-Billion-Declares-Regular-Quarterly-Dividend-of-1.20-Per-Share Philip Morris International (PMI) Announces New Three-Year Share Repurchase Program of up to $7 Billion, With Target Spending of $5 to $7 Billion; Declares Regular Quarterly Dividend of $1.20 Per Share], 11 June 2021, Accessed 11 July 2021 </ref>
 +
 +
===COVID-19 Response===
 +
On April 21, 2020, Philip Morris International reported its First Quarter results. The company estimated COVID-19 has already had an impact on its business due to declines in duty free sales {{r|PMI_Q1|p=8}}, IQOS user acquisition is down because lockdowns have led to store closures {{r|PMI_Q1|p=9}}, and new pricing enforcement in Indonesia {{r|PMI_Q1|p=10,20}} Andre Calantzopoulos said that Philip Morris International added almost 900,000 new consumers during the second quarter of 2020. <ref>[https://finance.yahoo.com/video/philip-morris-ceo-added-almost-121322161.html Philip Morris CEO: Added almost 900,000 new consumers during a very difficult quarter], ''Yahoo!Finance'', 22 July 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
On official, branded Instagram pages, Philip Morris International used references to COVID-19 to promote its heated cigarette IQOS. The company has also promoted at-home music series and launched exclusive music videos to promote tobacco products online. On official Philip Morris International sales sites, the company offered options to “waive ID validation” or for “contactless delivery” that in some cases note identification will be checked by couriers from a “safety distance of 1-2 meters”. The company waived ID validation on delivery of IQOS in at least one country and references the COVID-19 crisis in at least 18 countries (Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Canada, Greece, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Moldova, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, UK, and Ukraine). <ref name=“COVID19”> CTFK website,[https://web.archive.org/web/20201201085104/https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/media/2020/2020_05_covid-marketing BIG TOBACCO IS EXPLOITING COVID-19 TO MARKET ITS HARMFUL PRODUCTS], Accessed 1 December 2020</ref>
 +
 +
====Greece====
 +
Philip Morris International donated ventilators to the Greek government. <ref> [https://www.thedailybeast.com/philip-morris-and-big-tobacco-are-donating-ventilators-for-coronavirus?source=articles&via=rss Big Tobacco Is Donating Ventilators for Coronavirus. Seriously.], ''Daily Beast'', 30 March 2020, Accessed 21 April </ref>
 +
 +
====Indonesia====
 +
Authorities in the Indonesian city of Surabaya have ordered more than 500 factory workers employed by tobacco giant Philip Morris to self-isolate after two of their colleagues died from coronavirus, as the country struggles to slow the spread of the infectious illness. <ref>[https://jakartaglobe.id/news/indonesia-quarantines-over-500-philip-morris-factory-workers Indonesia Quarantines Over 500 Philip Morris Factory Workers], ''Jakarta Globe'', 3 May 2020, Accessed 21 May 2020 </ref>  As many as 1,100 employees of PT HM Sampoerna SKT Plant Malang were laid off. While 1,700 other employees remain employed with the Covid-19 prevention standard. <ref>[https://radarmalang.jawapos.com/bisnis/04/05/2020/1-100-karyawan-pabrik-rokok-sampoerna-di-malang-dirumahkan-wali-kota-pastikan-tak-ada-phk/ 1.100 Karyawan Pabrik Rokok Sampoerna di Malang Dirumahkan, Wali Kota Pastikan Tak Ada PHK], ''Radar Malang'', 4 May 2020, Accessed 21 May 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
====Switzerland====
 +
300 litres hand sanitiser produced at R&D Philip Morris International Neuchâtel lab was donated to cantonal authorities for hospitals and medical centers. <ref> LinkedIn website, [https://www.linkedin.com/posts/activity-6656548782274031616-3yoB/?fbclid=IwAR1-InoThQM-ZFzcoM43Hi_VR4d8rGGE9AvUaFwAu8uQJg3bDQ2NfisXpG8 Alexandra Laurent], ''Daily Times'', 21 April 2020, Accessed 21 May 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
====Pakistan====
 +
Philip Morris Pakistan partnered with Kashf Foundation and Paiman Alumni Trust to provide monetary and in-kind donations to the impacted groups in Pakistan along with distribution of food rations and hygiene kits. <ref>[https://dailytimes.com.pk/600698/support-to-vulnerable-groups-at-heart-of-covid-19-relief-efforts-philip-morris/ Support to vulnerable groups at heart of COVID-19 relief efforts: Philip Morris], ''Daily Times'', 23 April 2020, Accessed 21 May 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
====The Philippines====
 +
Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Corp donated 10,000 pieces of surgical masks and rice. <ref>[https://news.mb.com.ph/2020/04/07/ph-army-distributes-benguet-vegetables-rice-to-makati-pasay-families/?__cf_chl_jschl_tk__=d1319c8158c8f473c5b7be18fa4ed9f9f6ed665d-1587437652-0-AY3rXTWFAdoDipzMzkgWZ-acgTVcoabJfff97u5LDYPqYAXixwavPkZ3Pp5lbZeislK0eHvO0MhXpNXalVS-fNgMejeNyioN30OIDTyfTiP2GtzI6_4Zb8NYJQmVFqbh2Fc616nu-gTbX74AZgI_uoeJ-Thr0NO4mda6c38rwadoXrTcjnI3RZvhNR7nv_dhIrTUJqxRq2zY3XY3BLnIKOZAkmc0zcOOB3GpRvAeE3akJYEQk7lLVJykL8_a-_hoJx6D_R39nA4zP843Hh5BAgmAFwE9mVna5XBte2qS7iuQUk8-Ig8CLdZEn8iJ7hF-KABGlLf2yRckODQ8O9g5TVPRglMJ2x2ICWfFiTWXyt4jz6rcR9yz-iJ44o7p494M7A PH Army distributes Benguet vegetables, rice to Makati, Pasay families], ''MB'', 7 April 2020, Accessed 21 April 2020 </ref> Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Chairman Lucio Tan Group has also donated ventilators for Covid-19 patients in the Philippines. <ref>[https://news.mb.com.ph/2020/04/07/ph-army-distributes-benguet-vegetables-rice-to-makati-pasay-families/ PH Army distributes Benguet vegetables, rice to Makati, Pasay families], ''MB'', 7 April 2020, Accessed 21 April 2020 </ref> Around ₱ 1.8 million worth of turbine ventilators were donated by Lucio Tan Group - chairman of Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Corp Inc and the Jaime V. Ongpin Foundation Inc. to the province of Misamis Oriental. <ref> [https://www.sunstar.com.ph/article/1851623 P1.8-M ventilator gidonar sa MisOr sa NMMC], ''Sunstar'', 6 April 2020, Accessed 21 May 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
====Ukraine====
 +
Philip Morris International donated Hr 10 million (USD 370,370) to fight COVID-19 in Ukraine. It also cut prices for IQOS, launched free bonuses for its clients, and teamed up with the popular Glovo delivery service. <ref>[https://www.occrp.org/en/loosetobacco/blowing-unsmoke/ Blowing Unsmoke], ''OCCRP'', 25 May 2020, Accessed 19 June 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
====The United States====
 +
Philip Morris USA suspended operations at its South Richmond manufacturing plant after a second employee tested positive for the coronavirus. <ref>[https://www.richmond.com/business/update-philip-morris-suspends-operations-at-south-richmond-plant-after/article_d532b1b2-51bb-533a-8133-82c1e78b504c.html UPDATE: Philip Morris suspends operations at South Richmond plant after second employee tests positive for coronavirus], ''Richmond'', 19 March 2020, Accessed 21 April 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
==Profitability==
 +
 +
===Annual Trends===
 +
 +
According to US media outlet Yahoo, the transition away from cigarettes has weighed on Philip Morris International. Company shares tumbled 16 percent on April 25, 2018 when the company reported mixed first-quarter earnings. That marked the biggest one-day drop since the Altria spinoff as first-quarter cigarette shipments fell by 5.3 percent, as important markets, like Japan, Russia and Saudi Arabia, saw weak performance. The second quarter brought slight relief with cigarette volumes off by 1.5 percent. But the stock stayed under pressure for most of the summer, only recovering a bit of ground following the company’s investor day presentation last month. Yahoo also reported that while IQOS shipment volume rose 5.5 percent in the second quarter of 2018 in the key market of Japan, market share fell sequentially, by 0.3 percent, for the first time. And IQOS market share rose a modest 0.7 percent sequentially in Korea amid a barrage of negative ads on the health concerns of reduced risk products. <ref> [https://finance.yahoo.com/news/philip-morris-international-tries-risky-move-making-cigarettes-extinct-181322924.html Philip Morris International tries risky move of making cigarettes extinct], ''Yahoo'', October 2018, Accessed 15 October 2018</ref>
 +
 +
In October 2019, the company reported diluted earnings per share of USD 1.22, down by 15.3 percent; excluding currency. <ref name="PMIdividends">Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/media-center/press-releases/press-release-details/?newsId=21626 Philip Morris International Inc. Reports 2019 Third-Quarter Results], 18 October 2019,p.1, Accessed 18 October 2019 </ref>
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 25%;" |Fiscal year
 +
''in millions USD''
 +
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2020 <ref name="PMI_2020"> https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/investor_relation/pmi_2020_annualreport.pdf?sfvrsn=402b8eb4_2], p.16, Accessed 8 June 2021 </ref>
 +
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2019 <ref name="PMI_2019"> http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/IROL/92/92211/2020-PMI-FinalFiles/pdf/PMI_2019_AnnualReport.pdf 2019 Annual Report], p.14, Accessed 18 Aug 2020 </ref>
 +
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2018 {{r|PMI_AR2018|p=14}}
 +
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2017 {{r|PMI_AR2017|p=15}}
 +
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2016 {{r|PMI_AR2017|p=15}}
 +
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Selected_Financial_Data"> Philip Morris International website, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjM4NDQzfENoaWxkSUQ9MzI3NzI2fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International 2015 Annual Report], p.25, Accessed 16 July 2020</ref>
 +
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Selected_Financial_Data"/>
 +
|-
 +
| Revenues including excise taxes
 +
| 76,047
 +
| 77,921
 +
| 79,820
 +
| 78,090
 +
| 74,950
 +
| 73,910
 +
| 80,110
 +
|-
 +
| Gross Profit
 +
| 19,125
 +
| 19,292
 +
| 18,860
 +
| 18,310
 +
| 17,290
 +
| 17,430
 +
| 19,330
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries===
+
===Profits per Region===
An unconsolidated subsidiary is a company that is owned by a parent company, but whose individual financial statements are not included in the consolidated or combined financial statements of the parent company to which it belongs. Instead, this type of company appears in the combined financial statement as an investment.<Ref>Investopedia, [https://www.investopedia.com/terms/u/unconsolidated-subsidiary.asp Unconsolidated Subsidiary],2018, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
 
  
 +
===Regional Segments Since 2018===
 +
====European Union Region====
 +
The European Union (“EU”) Region is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, and covers all the EU countries and also comprises Switzerland, Norway and Iceland, which are linked to the EU through trade agreements. {{r|PMI_AR2018|p=1}}
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 30%;" | Subsidiary Name
+
! European Union
! style="font-weight:bold;" | Country
+
''in Millions USD''
! style="font-weight:bold;" | Interest amount (percentage)
+
! 2020{{r|PMI_2019|p=83-84}}
! style="font-weight:bold;" | Interest Type
+
! 2019{{r|PMI_2019|p=21}}
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 30%;" | Notes
+
! 2018{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2017{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2016{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
|-
 +
|Net Revenues
 +
|10,702
 +
|9,817
 +
|9,298
 +
|8,318
 +
|8,162
 +
|-
 +
|Operating Income
 +
|5,098
 +
|3,970
 +
|4,105
 +
|3,691
 +
|3,920
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
====Eastern Europe Region====
 +
The Eastern Europe Region is headquartered in Lausanne and includes Southeast Europe, Central Asia, Ukraine, Israel and Russia. {{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Eastern Europe Region
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
!2020{{r|PMI_2019|p=24}}
 +
! 2019{{r|PMI_2019|p=21}}
 +
! 2018{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2017{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2016{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
|-
 +
|Net Revenues
 +
|3,378
 +
|3,282
 +
|2,921
 +
|2,711
 +
|2,484
 +
|-
 +
|Operating Income
 +
|871
 +
|547
 +
|902
 +
|887
 +
|890
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
====Middle East & Africa Region====
 +
The Middle East & Africa Region is headquartered in Lausanne and covers the African continent, the Middle East, Turkey and the company's international duty free business.{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! The Middle East & Africa Region
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
!2020{{r|PMI_2019|p=24}}
 +
! 2019{{r|PMI_2019|p=21}}
 +
! 2018{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2017{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2016{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
|-
 +
|Net Revenues
 +
|3,088
 +
|4,042
 +
|4,114
 +
|3,988
 +
|4,516
 +
|-
 +
|Operating Income
 +
|1,026
 +
|1,684
 +
|1,627
 +
|1,884
 +
|1,990
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
====South & Southeast Asia Region====
 +
The South & Southeast Asia Region is headquartered in Hong Kong and includes Indonesia, the Philippines and other markets in this region.{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! The East Asia & Australia Region
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
!2020{{r|PMI_2019|p=24}}
 +
! 2019{{r|PMI_2019|p=21}}
 +
! 2018{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2017{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2016{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
|-
 +
|Net Revenues
 +
|5,429
 +
|5,364
 +
|5,580
 +
|6,373
 +
|4,285
 +
|-
 +
|Operating Income
 +
|2,400
 +
|1,932
 +
|1,851
 +
|2,608
 +
|1,691
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
====East Asia & Australia Region====
 +
The East Asia & Australia Region is headquartered in Hong Kong and includes Australia, Japan, South Korea, the People's Republic of China and other markets in this region, as well as Malaysia and Singapore.{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! The East Asia & Australia Region
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
! 2020{{r|PMI_2019|p=24}}
 +
! 2019{{r|PMI_2019|p=21}}
 +
! 2018{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2017{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2016{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
|-
 +
|Net Revenues
 +
|5,429
 +
|5,364
 +
|5,580
 +
|6,373
 +
|NA
 +
|-
 +
|Operating Income
 +
|2,400
 +
|1,932
 +
|1,851
 +
|2,608
 +
|NA
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
====Latin America & Canada Region====
 +
The Latin America & Canada Region is headquartered in New York and covers the South American continent, Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and Canada. {{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! The Latin America & Canada Region
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
!2020{{r|PMI_2019|p=24}}
 +
! 2019{{r|PMI_2019|p=21}}
 +
! 2018{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2017{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
! 2016{{r|PMI_AR2018|p=21}}
 +
|-
 +
|Net Revenues
 +
|1,701
 +
|2,206
 +
|3,056
 +
|2,941
 +
|2,842
 +
|-
 +
|Operating Income
 +
|564
 +
|235
 +
|1,145
 +
|997
 +
|938
 +
|-
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Regional Segments Before 2018===
 +
====European Union Region====
 +
 
 +
The European Union (“EU”) Region is headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland, and covers all the EU countries and also comprises Switzerland, Norway and Iceland, which are linked to the EU through trade agreements. <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results">[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], p.1, Accessed 16 July </ref>
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! European Union
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
! 2017 {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=22-23}}
 +
! 2016 {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=22-23}}
 +
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results>[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjM4NDQzfENoaWxkSUQ9MzI3NzI2fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International 2015 Annual Report], p.31, Accessed 16 July 2020</ref>
 +
! 2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 +
|-
 +
| Net revenues
 +
| 27,580
 +
| 27,129
 +
| 26,563
 +
| 30,517
 +
|-
 +
| Excise taxes on products
 +
| 19,262
 +
| 18,967
 +
| 18,495
 +
| 21,370
 +
|-
 +
| Net Revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 +
| 8,318
 +
| 8,162
 +
| 8,068
 +
| 9,147
 +
|-
 +
| Operating companies income
 +
| 3,775
 +
| 3,994
 +
| 3,576
 +
| 3,815
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
====Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa Region====
 +
The Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa (“EEMA”) Region is also headquartered in Lausanne and includes Eastern Europe, certain Balkan countries, Turkey, the Middle East and Africa and the company's international duty free business. {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=1}}
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
! 2017 {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=22-23}}
 +
! 2016 {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=22-23}}
 +
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 +
! 2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 +
|-
 +
| Net revenues
 +
| 18,045
 +
| 18,286
 +
| 18,328
 +
| 20,469
 +
|-
 +
| Excise taxes on products
 +
| 11,346
 +
| 11,286
 +
| 10,964
 +
| 11,855
 +
|-
 +
| Net Revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 +
| 6,669
 +
| 7,000
 +
| 7,364
 +
| 8,614
 +
|-
 +
| Operating companies income
 +
| 3,775
 +
| 3,016
 +
| 3,425
 +
| 4,033
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
====Asia Region====
 +
The Asia Region is headquartered in Hong Kong and covers all other Asian markets as well as Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands. {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=1}}
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Asia
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
! 2017 {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=22-23}}
 +
! 2016 {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=22-23}}
 +
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 +
! 2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 +
|-
 +
| Net revenues
 +
| 22,635
 +
| 20,531
 +
| 19,469
 +
| 19,255
 +
|-
 +
| Excise taxes on products
 +
| 11,845
 +
| 11,850
 +
| 11,266
 +
| 10,527
 +
|-
 +
| Net Revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 +
| 10,790
 +
| 8,681
 +
| 8,203
 +
| 8,728
 +
|-
 +
| Operating companies income
 +
| 4,149
 +
| 3,196
 +
| 2,886
 +
| 3,187
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
====Latin America & Canada Region====
 +
The Latin America & Canada Region is headquartered in New York and covers the South American continent, Central America, Mexico, the Caribbean and Canada. {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=1}}
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Latin America and Canada
 +
''in Millions USD''
 +
! 2017 {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=22-23}}
 +
! 2016 {{r|PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results|p=22-23}}
 +
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 +
! 2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 +
|-
 +
| Net revenues
 +
| 9,838
 +
| 9,007
 +
| 9,548
 +
| 9,865
 
|-
 
|-
| Emirati Investors-TA (FZC)
+
| Excise taxes on products
| United Arab Emirates
+
| 6,897
| 49
+
| 6,165
| Equity
+
| 6,389
|  
+
| 6,587
 
|-
 
|-
| Société des Tabacs Algéro-Émiratie ("STAEM")
+
| Net Revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
| Algiers
+
| 2,944
| 25
+
| 2,842
| Economic
+
| 3,159
| Algerian joint venture 51 percent owned by EITA and 49 percent  owned by Algerian state-owned enterprise Société Nationale des Tabacs et Allumettes SpA.Manufactures and distributes under license some of Philip Morris International's brands.
+
| 3,278
 
|-
 
|-
| Megapolis Distribution BV
+
| Operating companies income
| Russia
+
| 1,002
| 23
+
| 938
| Equity
+
| 1,085
| Holding company of CJSC TK Megapolis, Philip Morris International's distributor in Russia
+
| 1,030
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
===Investments===
 +
 +
The U.S. Federal Reserve bought USD 428 million in bonds of individual companies, also making an investments in Philip Morris International Inc. <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-fed-bonds/big-tobacco-big-oil-and-buffett-join-feds-portfolio-idUSKBN23Z0M8 Big tobacco, big oil and Buffett join Fed's portfolio], ''Reuters'', 29 June 2020, Accessed 20 July 2020</ref>
 +
 +
Medicago announced that it now focuses on developing a plant-based vaccine against coronavirus disease which it hopes to submit for approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2020. Medicago is partly owned by Philip Morris Investments, a part of Philip Morris International. <ref>[https://news.mb.com.ph/2020/03/25/manufacturing-firm-on-a-rush-to-develop-covid-19-vaccine-from-tobacco/ Manufacturing firm on a rush to develop COVID-19 vaccine from tobacco], ''Manila Bulletin'', 25 March 2020, Accessed 26 March 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
Philip Morris International has previously expressed an interest in becoming the strategic investor of Vietnam National Tobacco Corporation <ref>[https://www.vir.com.vn/philip-morris-interested-in-becoming-strategic-investor-of-vinataba-63994.html Philip Morris interested in becoming strategic investor of vintaba], ''Vir'', November 2018, Accessed 21 December 2018 </ref>
 +
The company moved ownership of its Australian operations to Hong Kong to take advantage of Investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) in an Australia-Hong Kong investment treaty. <ref>[https://theconversation.com/when-even-winning-is-losing-the-surprising-cost-of-defeating-philip-morris-over-plain-packaging-114279 When even winning is losing. The surprising cost of defeating Philip Morris over plain packaging], ''The Conversation'', 26 March 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
 +
 +
In August 2018, The Guardian reported that more than GBP 1.7 billion had "been directly invested in tobacco company stocks by healthcare providers, fire authorities and schools via UK council pension funds[...] Council retirement schemes in the UK are major investors in firms including [[British American Tobacco]], [[Imperial Brands]] and Philip Morris, according to data compiled from more than 100 freedom of information requests." <ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/13/council-pension-funds-major-investors-tobacco-companies Council pension funds are major investors in tobacco companies], ''The Guardian'', August 2018, Accessed 11 November 2018 </ref>
 +
 +
====Healthcare investments====
 +
Philip Morris International bought British pharmaceutical company Vectura for GBP 1 billion. Vectura is known for developing a pioneering inhaled treatment for Covid-19. The offer by Philip Morris International, which is investing billions to move away from its core tobacco business, trumped the £GBP 958m tabled by the private equity group Carlyle in May 2021. Vectura’s board had recommended that shareholders accept Carlyle’s offer but withdrew support for that bid after receiving the higher offer from Philip Morris International. <ref>[http://web.archive.org/save/https://www.theguardian.com/business/2021/jul/09/philip-morris-international-makes-1bn-offer-for-pharma-firm-vectura-covid-19 Philip Morris International makes £1bn offer for UK pharma firm Vectura], ''The Guardian'', 9 July 2021, Accessed 2 August 2021 </ref> The World Health Organisation has warned that companies like Philip Morris are seeking to establish partnerships in healthcare to undermine control of its “deadly products”. Subsequently, the British government has started into whether the takeover of Vectura by Philip Morris International raises public interest concerns. <ref>[http://web.archive.org/save/https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/global-health-body-alarmed-by-vectura-bid-89733bgpr Global health body alarmed by Vectura bid], ''The Times'', 17 July 2021, Accessed 2 August 2021</ref> In September 2021, Vectura was excluded from a pharmaceutical conference after academics disagreed over the company’s GBP 1.1bn takeover by cigarette company Philip Morris International. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://todayheadline.co/inhaler-firm-vectura-removed-from-conference-over-philip-morris-takeover-philip-morris-international/ Inhaler firm Vectura removed from conference over Philip Morris takeover | Philip Morris International], Today Headline, 17 September 2021, Accessed 20 September 2021</ref>
 +
In July 2021, Philip Morris International announced it entered into an agreement to acquire Fertin Pharma, a leading developer and manufacturer of innovative pharmaceutical and well-being products based on oral and intra-oral delivery systems, for an enterprise value of DKK 5.1 billion (approximately USD 820 million). <ref>[http://web.archive.org/save/http://www.venturemagazine.me/2021/07/philip-morris-international-announces-agreement-to-acquire-fertin-pharma/ Philip Morris International Announces Agreement to Acquire Fertin Pharma], ''Venture Magazine'', 10 July 2021, Accessed 2 August 2021</ref>
 +
 +
Philip Morris International acquired pharmaceutical company OtiTopic, which specializes in inhalation drugs. <ref> [https://web.archive.org/save/https://quote.rbc.ru/news/short_article/611100159a79472658c887b2 Philip Morris покупает фармкомпанию OtiTopic], ''RBC'', 16 August 2021, Accessed 20 September 2021  </ref>
 +
 +
====Government Ownership of Philip Morris International====
 +
In Algeria, the government owned co-invested in Groupe Madar via Public Enterprise Holding Company. The remaining balance of 51 percent is held by Emirati Investors-TA (FZC) ('EITA'), which is 49 percent owned by Philip Morris. <ref>[https://www.smokefreeworld.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Contradictions-and-Conflicts-FINAL-V2.pdf CONTRADICTIONS AND CONFLICTS], Smoke-Free World website, p. 9,  September 2020, Accessed 5 October 2020 </ref>
  
 
===List of Significant Subsidiaries===
 
===List of Significant Subsidiaries===
  
Listed below are subsidiaries of Philip Morris International Inc. as of December 31, 2017 and their state or country of organization. This list omits the subsidiaries of the Company that in the aggregate would not constitute a “significant subsidiary” of the Company, as that term is defined in Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X.<ref> U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. [https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1413329/000141332918000007/pm-ex21_123117xq4.htm List of Significant Subsidiaries], 2018, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
+
Listed below are subsidiaries of Philip Morris International Inc. as of December 31, 2017 and their state or country of organization. This list omits the subsidiaries of the Company that in the aggregate would not constitute a “significant subsidiary” of the Company, as that term is defined in Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X.<ref> U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. [https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1413329/000141332918000007/pm-ex21_123117xq4.htm List of Significant Subsidiaries], 2018, Accessed 11 September 2018 </ref>
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 33%;" |Subsidiary Name
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 33%;" |Subsidiary Name
Line 397: Line 746:
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Forecast===
+
====Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries====
 
+
An unconsolidated subsidiary is a company that is owned by a parent company, but whose individual financial statements are not included in the consolidated or combined financial statements of the parent company to which it belongs. Instead, this type of company appears in the combined financial statement as an investment.<Ref>Investopedia, [https://www.investopedia.com/terms/u/unconsolidated-subsidiary.asp Unconsolidated Subsidiary], 2018, Accessed 11 September 2018 </ref>
The 2019 reported diluted earnings per share forecast to be at least USD 5.37, at prevailing exchange rates. <ref>Fourth-Quarter Earnings Results, [https://www.pmi.com/investor-relations/reports-filings PMI website], p. 2, February 2019, Accessed February 2019  </ref>
 
 
 
Several media outlets <ref> [https://www.fool.com/investing/2018/07/22/are-e-cigs-fizzling-out-for-philip-morris-internat.aspx Are E-Cigs Fizzling Out for Philip Morris International?], ''The Motley Fool'', July 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref> reported on disappointing sales of heated tobacco products in Japan. In October 2018, Philip Morris reported a decline by 4 billion units in Japan.  <ref> [https://www.fool.com/investing/2018/10/10/philip-morris-getting-burned-by-slow-iqos-sales.aspx Philip Morris International Getting Burned by Slowing iQOS Sales], ''The Motley Fool'', October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref> Wells Fargo Securities called the Philip Morris International Stock their top pick. <ref name="PMI_WF">Wells Fargo Securities, November 14, 2018 Equity Research newsletter, November 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
 
 
 
  "We believe PM has reached an inflection point and the set up heading into 2019 is even more positive than we originally thought... While management is maintaining realistic/conservative mid-term guidance (which we applaud), we think next year could present a step change especially given the “good base” established (and relatively easy comps) in 2018. We believe PM should be a core holding now and in 2019 and encourage l.t. investors to accumulate shares ahead of the next positive catalyst (FDA’s PMTA approval of iQOS). We reiterate our Outperform rating on PM and maintain our $100 price target." {{r|PMI_WF}}
 
 
 
Forbes expects the volume share of heated tobacco to the total volume of the company to continue grow in financial year 2018. This is based on substantial growth in the markets it was present in at the end of financial year 2017, as well as launch in a number of new markets. At the end of financial year 2017, IQOS was available for sale in key cities in 37 markets and nationwide in Japan. This number has increased to 43 as of the end of September 2018. Forbes further expects the volume of heated tobacco units to cross 42.7 billion, as compared to company estimates of between 41 and 42 billion. Forbes estimates the share price to grow to USD 105 which is substantially higher than the current market price. <ref> [https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2018/10/05/how-much-will-iqos-contribute-to-philip-morris-revenue-in-fy-2018/#55b64e8c7851 How Much Will iQOS Contribute To Philip Morris' Revenue In FY 2018?], ''Forbes'', September 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref>
 
 
 
==Profitability==
 
 
 
===Annual Trends===
 
 
 
According to Yahoo, the transition away from cigarettes has weighed on Philip Morris International. Shares tumbled 16 percent on April 25 2018 when the company reported mixed first-quarter earnings. That marked the biggest one-day drop since the Altria spinoff as first-quarter cigarette shipments fell by 5.3 percent, as important markets, like Japan, Russia and Saudi Arabia, saw weak performance. The second quarter brought slight relief with cigarette volumes off by 1.5 percent. But the stock stayed under pressure for most of the summer, only recovering a bit of ground following the company’s investor day presentation last month. Yahoo also reported that while IQOS shipment volume rose 5.5 percent in the second quarter of 2018 in the key market of Japan, market share fell sequentially, by 0.3 percent, for the first time. And IQOS market share rose a modest 0.7 percent sequentially in Korea amid a barrage of negative ads on the health concerns of reduced risk products. <ref> [https://finance.yahoo.com/news/philip-morris-international-tries-risky-move-making-cigarettes-extinct-181322924.html Philip Morris International tries risky move of making cigarettes extinct], ''Yahoo'', October 2018, Accessed October 2018</ref>
 
 
 
According to Philip Morris International's 2017 Annual Report, their total cigarette and heated tobacco unit shipment volume of 798.2 billion units is a decline of 2.7 percent on the previous year, primarily reflecting lower cigarette industry volume in the Asia and Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa (EEMA) Regions, but partly offset by higher heated tobacco unit volume, driven principally by Japan. The total international market share, excluding China and the U.S., declined by 0.1 percentage point to 28.0 percent, mainly due to mid-and-low price segments cigarette brands in the Asia and EEMA Regions. Market share of the premium brands increased, driven by the strong performance of their heated tobacco portfolio. <ref>Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], Accessed September 2018 </ref>
 
 
 
Quarter Three saw the shares of Philip Morris International rose 4.7 percent. <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-pmi-results/philip-morris-posts-rise-in-third-quarter-sales-and-profit-idUSKCN1MS1NW Pricing boost helps Philip Morris quarterly results to beat estimates], ‘’Reuters’’, October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </REF> Reported and adjusted diluted earnings per share of USD 1.44 were up by USD 0.17 or 13.4% versus USD 1.27 in 2017. <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://www.pmi.com/investor-relations/press-releases-and-events/press-releases-overview  Press Releases Overview], October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </REF> 
 
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 25%;" |Fiscal year
+
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 30%;" | Subsidiary Name
''in billions USD''
+
! style="font-weight:bold;" | Country
 
+
! style="font-weight:bold;" | Interest amount (percentage)
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2017 {{r|PMI_AR2017|p=15}}
+
! style="font-weight:bold;" | Interest Type
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2016 {{r|PMI_AR2017|p=15}}
+
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 30%;" | Notes
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Selected_Financial_Data">[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjM4NDQzfENoaWxkSUQ9MzI3NzI2fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International 2015 Annual Report, p.25]</ref>
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 15%;" |2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Selected_Financial_Data"/>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Revenues or Net Sales
+
| Emirati Investors-TA (FZC)
| 78.09
+
| United Arab Emirates
| 74.95
+
| 49
| 73.91
+
| Equity
| 80.11
+
|  
 
|-
 
|-
| Gross Profit
+
| Société des Tabacs Algéro-Émiratie ("STAEM")
| 18.31
+
| Algiers
| 17.29
+
| 25
| 17.43
+
| Economic
| 19.33
+
| Algerian joint venture 51 percent owned by EITA and 49 percent  owned by Algerian state-owned enterprise Société Nationale des Tabacs et Allumettes SpA.Manufactures and distributes under license some of Philip Morris International's brands.
|}
 
 
 
===Profits per Region (in Millions USD)===
 
 
 
====European Union====
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! European Union
 
''in Millions USD''
 
! 2017 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results>[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report, pp.22-24]</ref>
 
! 2016 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results>[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjM4NDQzfENoaWxkSUQ9MzI3NzI2fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International 2015 Annual Report, P.31]</ref>
 
! 2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Net Revenues
+
| Megapolis Distribution BV
| 27,580
+
| Russia
| 27,129
+
| 23
| 26,563
+
| Equity
| 30,517
+
| Holding company of CJSC TK Megapolis, Philip Morris International's distributor in Russia
|-
 
| Excise taxes on products
 
| 19,262
 
| 18,967
 
| 18,495
 
| 21,370
 
|-
 
| Net Revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 
| 8,318
 
| 8,162
 
| 8,068
 
| 9,147
 
|-
 
| Operating companies income
 
| 3,775
 
| 3,994
 
| 3,576
 
| 3,815
 
|}
 
 
 
====Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa ====
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Eastern Europe, Middle East and Africa
 
''in Millions USD''
 
! 2017 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2016 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
|-
 
| Net Revenues
 
| 18,045
 
| 18,286
 
| 18,328
 
| 20,469
 
|-
 
| Excise taxes on products
 
| 11,346
 
| 11,286
 
| 10,964
 
| 11,855
 
|-
 
| Net Revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 
| 6,669
 
| 7,000
 
| 7,364
 
| 8,614
 
|-
 
| Operating companies income
 
| 3,775
 
| 3,016
 
| 3,425
 
| 4,033
 
|}
 
 
 
====Asia====
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Asia
 
''in Millions USD''
 
! 2017 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2016 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
|-
 
| Net Revenues
 
| 22,635
 
| 20,531
 
| 19,469
 
| 19,255
 
|-
 
| Excise taxes on products
 
| 11,845
 
| 11,850
 
| 11,266
 
| 10,527
 
|-
 
| Net Revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 
| 10,790
 
| 8,681
 
| 8,203
 
| 8,728
 
|-
 
| Operating companies income
 
| 4,149
 
| 3,196
 
| 2,886
 
| 3,187
 
|}
 
 
 
====Latin America & Canada====
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Latin America and Canada
 
''in Millions USD''
 
! 2017 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2016 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2014 <ref name="PMI_AR_2015_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
|-
 
| Net Revenues
 
| 9,838
 
| 9,007
 
| 9,548
 
| 9,865
 
|-
 
| Excise taxes on products
 
| 6,897
 
| 6,165
 
| 6,389
 
| 6,587
 
|-
 
| Net Revenues, excluding excise taxes on products
 
| 2,944
 
| 2,842
 
| 3,159
 
| 3,278
 
|-
 
| Operating companies income
 
| 1,002
 
| 938
 
| 1,085
 
| 1,030
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
===Acquisitions===
 
===Acquisitions===
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 40%;" |Recent acquisitions<ref name="CHRUCHBASE_PMI">Crunchbase, [https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/philip-morris-international#section-acquisitions Philip Morris International], Accessed May 2018</ref>
+
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 40%;" |Recent acquisitions<ref name="CHRUCHBASE_PMI">Crunchbase, [https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/philip-morris-international#section-acquisitions Philip Morris International], Accessed 12 May 2018</ref>
 
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 40%;" |Acquired Organization Name
 
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 40%;" |Acquired Organization Name
 
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 20%;" |Acquiring Organization Name
 
!  style="font-weight:bold; width: 20%;" |Acquiring Organization Name
Line 635: Line 830:
 
| 7/10/2009
 
| 7/10/2009
 
| 452,000,000.00
 
| 452,000,000.00
|}
 
 
===Investments===
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 40%;" | Investments
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 40%;" | Organizational Name
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 20%;" | Funding Type
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 20%;" | Amount Raised (in USD)
 
! style="font-weight:bold; width: 20%;" | Date Announced
 
 
|-
 
|-
| Funding Round
 
 
| Syqe Medical
 
| Syqe Medical
| Funding Round
+
| Syqe Medical (Funding Round)
 +
| Philip Morris International
 +
| 1/19/2016<ref name="CHRUCHBASE_PMI" />
 
| 20,000,000.00<ref name="CHRUCHBASE_PMI" />
 
| 20,000,000.00<ref name="CHRUCHBASE_PMI" />
| 1/19/2016<ref name="CHRUCHBASE_PMI" />
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
Philip Morris International has expressed an interest in becoming the strategic investor of Vietnam National Tobacco Corporation (Vinataba) <ref>[https://www.vir.com.vn/philip-morris-interested-in-becoming-strategic-investor-of-vinataba-63994.html Philip Morris interested in becoming strategic investor of vintaba], ''Vir'', November 2018, Accessed December 2018 </ref>
+
====Notable Investors====
 +
Tobacco companies have received more than GBP 45 million investment from the United Kingdom's Lincolnshire County Council’s pension fund. The current (as of January 2019) investment for Philip Morris sits at GBP 11.1 million. <ref>[https://www.granthamjournal.co.uk/news/county-council-invests-45-million-of-its-pension-fund-in-tobacco-companies-9058351/ Lincolnshire County Council invests £45 million from pension fund in tobacco companies], ''Grantham Reporter'', January 5, 2019, Accessed 12 January 2019 </ref> Billionaire George Soros bought 590,000 Philip Morris International shares worth over USD 39 million in Q4 of 2018. <ref> [https://finance.yahoo.com/news/billionaire-george-soros-added-dividend-174036134.html Billionaire George Soros Added These Dividend Stocks to His Portfolio], Yahoo, 16 April 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===Market Share===
 +
According to Philip Morris International's 2017 Annual report, the total international market share, excluding China and the U.S., declined by 0.1 percentage point
 +
to 28.0 percent, mainly due to mid- and low price segments cigarette brands in the Asia and EEMA Regions. Market share of Philip Morris International's premium brands increased, driven by the strong performance of the heated tobacco portfolio. Philip Morris International recorded growing or stable total market share in 16 of the top 30 operating companies income markets.<ref>Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], Accessed 11 September 2018 </ref>
  
In August 2018, The Guardian reported that more than GBP 1.7 billion had "been directly invested in tobacco company stocks by healthcare providers, fire authorities and schools via UK council pension funds[...] Council retirement schemes in the UK are major investors in firms including [[British American Tobacco]], [[Imperial Brands]] and Philip Morris, according to data compiled from more than 100 freedom of information requests." <ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/aug/13/council-pension-funds-major-investors-tobacco-companies Council pension funds are major investors in tobacco companies], ''The Guardian'', August 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
+
===Emerging Markets===
  
Analysis by Post suggests that "institutional investors currently hold around $100.15 billion or 74 percent in PM [Philip Morris] stock". <ref>[https://www.postanalyst.com/2018/10/30/146-institutional-investors-exited-positions-in-philip-morris-international-inc-pm/ 146 Institutional Investors Exited Positions In Philip Morris International Inc.], ''Mason, Amelie'', October 30, 2018, Accessed November 2018</ref>
+
According to Euromonitor International, Philip Morris International has increased its cigarette market share in the Middle East and Africa region more than any of its competitors over the last five years, from about 10 percent to 13 percent by retail volume sales. <ref name="CFTFK_BAD_ACTS"> Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/what-we-do/industry-watch/pmi-foundation/bad-acts Industry Watch THE PHILIP MORRIS-FUNDED FOUNDATION FOR A SMOKE-FREE WORLD], 2018, Accessed 10 September 2018</ref>
  
The company moved ownership of its Australian operations to Hong Kong to take advantage of ISDS in an Australia-Hong Kong investment treaty. <ref>[https://theconversation.com/when-even-winning-is-losing-the-surprising-cost-of-defeating-philip-morris-over-plain-packaging-114279
+
====China====
When even winning is losing. The surprising cost of defeating Philip Morris over plain packaging], ''The Conversation'', 26 March 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
PMI is scouring China’s start-up scene for inhalation technology that can be developed for the medical field as the tobacco giant seeks new paths outside its traditional consumer products business. The effort is spearheaded by PM Equity Partner, a US$150 million Swiss-based venture fund seeded by its parent, with a focus on building stakes in healthier environmental, human and fast-moving consumer goods. Philip Morris has said its long-term plan is to stop selling cigarettes eventually by converting its customers to the IQOS system. <ref>[https://www.scmp.com/business/companies/article/3037420/philip-morris-scours-china-start-ups-technology-replicate-iqos Philip Morris scours China start-ups for technology to replicate IQOS system in medical field], South China Morning Herald, 13 November 2019, Accessed 26 November 2019 </ref>
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
====India====
! Name
+
Philip Morris has also targeted India and its 1.3 billion people as a major growth opportunity, stating in a 2014 internal company document that “India remains a high potential market with huge upside with cigarette market still in infancy,” according to a July 2017 Reuters report. <ref name="CFTFK_BAD_ACTS" />
! Number of ordinary shares
 
! percentage of market cap
 
|-
 
| Vanguard Group Inc
 
| 114,749,469 <ref name="PMI_INV">SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION website, [https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/102909/000093247118004954/philipmorrisinternationalinc.htm SC 13G/A Filed 02/13/2018 SC 13G/A 1 philipmorrisinternationalinc.htm], Accessed November 2018 </ref>
 
| 7.38 {{r|PMI_INV}}
 
|-
 
| BlackRock, Inc.
 
| 94,653,613 <ref name="PMI_INV2">SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION website, [https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1364742/000021545718003695/us7181721090_012418.txt SC 13G/A Filed 02/13/2018], Accessed November 2018 </ref>
 
| 6.1 {{r|PMI_INV2}}
 
|-
 
| Capital World Investors
 
| 73,630,703 <ref name="PMI_INV3">SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION website, [https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1413329/000142284817000111/edgpm.txt SC 13G/A Filed 02/13/2017], Accessed November 2018 </ref>
 
| 4.7 {{r|PMI_INV3}}
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
===Shareholders===
+
====Mexico====
Tobacco companies have received more than GBP 45 million investment from the United Kingdom's Lincolnshire County Council’s pension fund. The current (as of January 2019) investment for Philip Mo sits at GBP 11.1 million. <ref>[https://www.granthamjournal.co.uk/news/county-council-invests-45-million-of-its-pension-fund-in-tobacco-companies-9058351/ Lincolnshire County Council invests £45 million from pension fund in tobacco companies], ''Grantham Reporter'', January 5, 2019, Accessed January 2019 </ref>
+
Philip Morris International launched IQOS launched in Mexico in the last quarter of 2019, with an initial focus in select areas of Mexico City. <ref name="PMI_Q4results">Philip Morris International website, [https://philipmorrisinternational.gcs-web.com/static-files/96ae3fdd-5033-4042-865f-7657c0f465d2 Philip Morris International Inc. 2019 Fourth-Quarter and Full-Year Results Conference Call February 6, 2020], p.4, 6 February 2020, Accessed 10 February 2020 </ref>
  
Billionaire George Soros bought 590,000 Philip Morris International shares worth over USD 39 million in Q4 of 2018. <ref> [https://finance.yahoo.com/news/billionaire-george-soros-added-dividend-174036134.html Billionaire George Soros Added These Dividend Stocks to His Portfolio], Yahoo, 16 April 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
+
====Russia====
 +
Philip Morris International continues to expand in Russia. IQOS has now become available to adult smokers in 40 other Russian cities. More than 10 brand outlets have also opened in Cheln's Embankments. <ref>[https://realnoevremya.ru/news/148841-filip-morris-interneshnl-rasshiryaet-geografiyu-prisutstviya-iqos-v-regionah-rossii«Филип Моррис Интернэшнл» расширяет географию присутствия IQOS в регионах России], ''Real noevemya'', 21 August 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref> IQOS recently launched the Feed Feed campaign for adult IQOS users in Palestine, with the aim of helping their adult smokers to become the best alternative to traditional cigarettes. The campaign requires that users and traders be rewarded with 70 shekels in purchases when any adult smokers switch to the product, and any convert to IQOS will be rewarded with a discount of 70 shekels on an IQOS of any of the three types offered. <ref> [https://www.raya.ps/news/1070735.html IQOS تطلق حملة فيد واستفيد], ''Raya'', 19 August 2019, 12 September 2019 </ref>
  
===Other Notable Investors===
+
====South Africa====
{| class="wikitable"
+
Philip Morris International opened a flagship store in Johannesburg, South Africa, in a bid to stoke demand in Africa for IQOS. <ref name= "PMI_Stores">[https://www.fin24.com/Companies/ICT/philip-morris-opens-first-africa-store-to-stoke-demand-for-alternative-cigarettes-20181116 Philip Morris opens first Africa store to stoke demand for alternative cigarettes], ''Fin 24'', November 2018, Accessed 11 November 2018 </ref>
! Name
 
! Number of ordinary shares
 
! percentage of market cap
 
|-
 
| Franklin Resources Inc.
 
| 6,103,206 <ref> [https://focuswashington.com/2018/11/30/franklin-resources-497mn-holdings-philip-morris-international/ Franklin Resources Has $497mn Holdings in Philip Morris International], "Focus Washington", November 2018, Accessed December 2018</ref>
 
| 0.39%
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
===Market Share===
+
====Uzbekistan====
According to Philip Morris International's 2017 Annual report, the total international market share, excluding China and the U.S., declined by 0.1 percentage point
+
Tashkent Tobacco is launching a licensed production of international brands as part of a bilateral agreement with Philip Morris International. <ref>[https://podrobno.uz/cat/economic/tashkent-tobacco-nachinaet-litsenzionnoe-proizvodstvo-mezhdunarodnykh-brendov-byudzhet-strany-za-odi/ Tashkent Tobacco начинает лицензионное производство международных брендов. Бюджет страны за один год получит свыше 130 млрд сумов], ''Podrobno'', 10 December 2019, Accessed 20 January 2020 </ref>
to 28.0 percent, mainly due to mid- and low price segments cigarette brands in the Asia and EEMA Regions. Market share of Philip Morris International's premium brands increased, driven by the strong performance of the heated tobacco portfolio. Philip Morris International recorded growing or stable total market share in 16 of the top 30 operating companies income markets.<ref>Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], Accessed September 2018 </ref>
 
  
===Emerging Markets===
+
===Factory Openings and Closures===
 +
The 2017 annual report states that at on December 31, 2017, Philip Morris International owned and operated 46 manufacturing facilities. <ref> Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], p. 11, Accessed 10 September 2018 </ref>
  
Philip Morris International is hoping to sell IQOS in Mexico. The company is already in talks with Mexican authorities, such as the Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risks. <ref>[https://www.reporteindigo.com/indigonomics/marlboro-podria-dejar-de-producir-cigarros-para-vender-productos-libres-de-humo-en-mexico/ MARLBORO PODRÍA DEJAR DE PRODUCIR CIGARROS PARA VENDER PRODUCTOS LIBRES DE HUMO EN MÉXICO], Reporte Indigo, 28 May 2019, 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
====Australia====
 +
In 2014, Philip Morris International ceased the production of cigarettes at its factory in Moorabbin (Australia) after nearly 60 years in operation. All production for the Australian market was moved to South Korea. <ref>[https://www.bbc.com/news/business-26847200#story_continues_1 Philip Morris to close Australia cigarette factory], ''BBC'', 2 April 2018, Accessed 14 December 2018 </ref>
  
Philip Morris International opened a flagship store in Johannesburg, South Africa, in a bid to stoke demand in Africa for IQOS. <ref name= "PMI_Stores">[https://www.fin24.com/Companies/ICT/philip-morris-opens-first-africa-store-to-stoke-demand-for-alternative-cigarettes-20181116 Philip Morris opens first Africa store to stoke demand for alternative cigarettes], Fin 24, November 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
+
====Colombia====
Research shows that tobacco companies specifically target and market to lower socio-economic groups, and those countries with a more favourable regulatory landscape. <ref name="EUROMONITOR">Euromonitor International [database on the Internet]. Philip Morris International Inc, in Tobacco. Euromonitor
+
The company is also closing down its cigarette manufacturing plants in Medellín and Barranquilla, Colombia. <ref> [https://www.newsy-today.com/cigarette-smuggling-forces-philip-morris-to-close-two-tobacco-plants-in-colombia/ Cigarette smuggling forces Philip Morris to close two tobacco plants in Colombia], ''Newsy'', 6 June 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref> As a result of these actions, the Pielroja cigarette will be taken off the market. <ref>[https://colombiareports.com/colombia-loses-iconic-cigarette-as-philip-morris-packs-up-and-goes/ Colombia loses iconic cigarette as Philip Morris packs up and goes], ''Colombia Reports'', 9 June 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
International. c 2009. </ref> It’s clear that their marketing strategy focuses on two main demographics. Aggressively pursuing larger volumes of combustibles, mainly cigarettes, to lower socio-economic groups around the world, particularly EMMA and Asia Pacific. And convincing those in developed economies to switch from combustibles to heated tobacco products at a much higher price-point, whilst touting ‘reduced risks’ to lure over more educated and health conscious consumers. According to Euromonitor International, in 2008, Philip Morris International had a market share of over 50 percent  in 13 markets and a market share of over 30 percent  in 36 markets. 21 of the 35 markets are emerging markets. Philip Morris International also had a share of over 20 percent  in 12 additional markets including Russia and Japan. <ref name="EUROMONITOR" />
 
  
According to Euromonitor International, Philip Morris International has increased its cigarette market share in the Middle East and Africa region more than any of its competitors over the last five years, from about 10 percent to 13 percent by retail volume sales. <ref name="CFTFK_BAD_ACTS"> Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/what-we-do/industry-watch/pmi-foundation/bad-acts Industry Watch THE PHILIP MORRIS-FUNDED FOUNDATION FOR A SMOKE-FREE WORLD], 2018, Accessed September 2018</ref>
+
====Greece====
 +
In May 2018, the factory of Philip Morris International's Greek affiliate (Papastratos) in Aspropyrgos ceased cigarette production and is now exclusively producing HEETS, the tobacco units used with IQOS, the company’s most advanced smoke-free product.<ref> [https://finance.yahoo.com/news/philip-morris-international-shifts-entire-123100038.html Philip Morris International Shifts Entire Capacity of Its Cigarette Factory in Greece to Smoke-Free Products], ''Yahoo! Finance'',  March 2018, Accessed 5 September 2018</ref>
  
Philip Morris has also targeted India and its 1.3 billion people as a major growth opportunity, stating in a 2014 internal company document that “India remains a high potential market with huge upside with cigarette market still in infancy,” according to a July 2017 Reuters report. <ref name="CFTFK_BAD_ACTS" />
+
====Germany====
 +
Philip Morris ended the production of cigarettes in Berlin, Neukölln in December. The end of production had been planned for some time. <ref>[https://www.wiwo.de/unternehmen/handel/tabakkonzern-philip-morris-stellt-zigarettenproduktion-in-berlin-ein/25353484.html Philip Morris stellt Zigarettenproduktion in Berlin ein], ''WIWO'', 19 December 2019, Accessed 24 January 2020 </ref>
  
===Factory Openings and Closures===
+
====Italy====
 +
On October 10, 2014, Philip Morris opened it's first pilot plant in the EU for producing Reduced Risk Products (RRPs) near Bologna. Italy, after an announced investment of up to €500 million. <ref> Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], p.4, Accessed 6 September 2018 </ref> Later the company announced a doubling of the Bologna facility backed by another €500 million.<ref>[http://www.italy24.ilsole24ore.com/art/business-and-economy/2017-07-04/philip-morris-doubles-its-investments-the-emilia-region-rocketing-to-1-billion--191741.php?uuid=AEfzEfrB Philip Morris doubles its investments in the Emilia region, rocketing to €1 billion], ''Italy24'', July 2017, Accessed 7 September 2018</ref>
  
In 2019, Philip Morris Pakistan, an affiliate of Philip Morris International, announced shutting down one of its cigarettes manufacturing facilities. <ref> [https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/439758-philip-morris-shuts-down-tobacco-manufacturing-facility Philip Morrisshuts down manufacturing facility], The News, 5 March 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref> The company is also closing down its cigarette manufacturing plants in Medellín and Barranquilla, Colombia. <ref> [https://www.newsy-today.com/cigarette-smuggling-forces-philip-morris-to-close-two-tobacco-plants-in-colombia/ Cigarette smuggling forces Philip Morris to close two tobacco plants in Colombia], 6 June 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref> As a result of these actions, the Pielroja cigarette will be taken off the market. <ref>[https://colombiareports.com/colombia-loses-iconic-cigarette-as-philip-morris-packs-up-and-goes/ Colombia loses iconic cigarette as Philip Morris packs up and goes], Colombia Reports, 9 June 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
====Netherlands====
 +
In 2014, tobacco company closed down its Dutch factory in Bergen op Zoom. 1,230 jobs were lost. <ref> [https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2014/04/1230_jobs_to_go_as_philip_morr/ 1,230 jobs to go as Philip Morris International shuts Dutch factory], ''DutchNews.nl'', 4 April 2014, Accessed 23 December 2018</ref>
  
Russian Daily Kommersant.ru reported Philip Morris International will invest RUB 13 billion at the Philip Morris Izhora plant in the Leningrad Region of Russia. <ref>[http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3786719 Philip Morris вложит 13 млрд рублей в развитие производства табачных стиков], Kommersant.ru, October 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref> In May 2018, the factory of Philip Morris International's Greek affiliate (Papastratos) in Aspropyrgos ceased cigarette production and is now exclusively producing HEETS, the tobacco units used with IQOS, the company’s most advanced smoke-free product.<ref> [https://finance.yahoo.com/news/philip-morris-international-shifts-entire-123100038.html Philip Morris International Shifts Entire Capacity of Its Cigarette Factory in Greece to Smoke-Free Products], ''Yahoo! Finance'', March 2018, Accessed September 2018</ref>
+
====Pakistan====
 +
In 2019, Philip Morris Pakistan announced shutting down one of its cigarettes manufacturing facilities. <ref> [https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/439758-philip-morris-shuts-down-tobacco-manufacturing-facility Philip Morrisshuts down manufacturing facility], ''The News'', 5 March 2019, Accessed 3 April 2019 </ref>
  
The 2017 annual report states that at on 31st December 2017 Philip Morris International owned and operated 46 manufacturing facilities. <ref> Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], p. 11, Accessed September 2018 </ref>  
+
The Adviser to Prime Minister for Commerce and Investment, Abdul Razak Dawood announced that Pakistan Tobacco Company plans to set up a Business Process Outsourcing organization hub in Pakistan to service Asia-Pacific and Middle-East Region. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.urdupoint.com/en/business/ptc-announces-to-establish-bpo-organization-1115697.html PTC announces to establish BPO organization], ''Urdu Point'', 16 December 2020, Accessed 14 January 2021</ref>
  
On October 10, 2014, Philip Morris opened it's first pilot plant in the EU for producing Reduced Risk Products (RRPs) near Bologna. Italy, after an announced investment of up to €500 million.
+
====Russia====
<ref> Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], P.4, Accessed September 2018 </ref> Later the company announced a doubling of the Bologna facility backed by another €500 million.<ref>[http://www.italy24.ilsole24ore.com/art/business-and-economy/2017-07-04/philip-morris-doubles-its-investments-the-emilia-region-rocketing-to-1-billion--191741.php?uuid=AEfzEfrB Philip Morris doubles its investments in the Emilia region, rocketing to €1 billion], ''Italy24'', July 2017, Accessed September 2018</ref>
+
Russian daily newspaper Kommersant.ru reported Philip Morris International will invest RUB 13 billion at the Philip Morris Izhora plant in the Leningrad Region of Russia. <ref>[http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/3786719 Philip Morris вложит 13 млрд рублей в развитие производства табачных стиков], Kommersant.ru, October 2018, Accessed 5 November 2018 </ref>
  
In 2014, Philip Morris International ceased the production of cigarettes at its factory in Moorabbin (Australia) after nearly 60 years in operation. All production for the Australian market was moved to South Korea. <ref>[https://www.bbc.com/news/business-26847200#story_continues_1 Philip Morris to close Australia cigarette factory], ''BBC'', 2 April 2018, Accessed December 2018 </ref> The tobacco company also closed down its Dutch factory in Bergen op Zoom. 1,230 jobs were lost. <ref> [https://www.dutchnews.nl/news/2014/04/1230_jobs_to_go_as_philip_morr/ 1,230 jobs to go as Philip Morris International shuts Dutch factory], ''DutchNews.nl'', 4 April 2014, Accessed December 2018</ref>
+
====Serbia====
 +
Philip Morris International invested USD 20 million in its production facility in Nis, whereby the total investments of this company in Serbia have reached the amount of close to USD 900 million. <ref>[https://www.ekapija.com/en/news/3068506/philip-morris-invests-usd-20-million-in-modernization-of-factory-in-nis Philip Morris Invests USD 20 Million in Modernization of Factory in Nis], ''Ekapija'', 13 November 2020, Accessed 19 November 2020</ref>
  
 
===Dividends===
 
===Dividends===
In June 2018, The Board of Directors of Philip Morris International announced the increase the company’s regular quarterly dividend by 6.5 percent to an annualized rate of USD 4.56 per share. The new quarterly dividend of USD 1.14 per share, up from USD 1.07 per share, is payable on July 11, 2018, to shareholders of record as of June 22, 2018. <ref>Businesswire, [https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20180608005223/en/Philip-Morris-International-Increases-Dividend-6.5-Annualized Philip Morris International Inc. Increases Dividend by 6.5% to an Annualized Rate of $4.56 Per Share], June 2018, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
+
 
 +
The Board of Directors of Philip Morris International Inc. declared a regular quarterly dividend of USD 1.17 per common share, payable on January 10, 2020, to shareholders of record as of December 19, 2019. <ref> Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/investor-relations/press-releases-and-events/press-releases-overview/press-release-details/?newsId=21696 Philip Morris International Inc. Declares Regular Quarterly Dividend of $1.17 Per Share], 5 December 2019, Accessed 16 December 2019 </ref>
  
 
==Products==
 
==Products==
Philip Morris International cigarettes are sold in more than 180 markets, and in many of these markets they hold the number one or number two market share position. Philip Morris International have a wide range of premium, mid-price and low-price brands. Philip Morris International portfolio comprises both international and local brands and is led by Marlboro, the world’s highest-selling international cigarette, which accounted for approximately 35 percent  of the company's total 2017 cigarette shipment volume. Marlboro is complemented in the premium-price category by Parliament. Other leading international cigarette brands are Bond Street, Chesterfield, L&M, Lark and Philip Morris International. These seven international cigarette brands contributed approximately 75 percent  of cigarette shipment volume in 2017.<ref name="PMI_2017_FORM_10K">SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION website, [https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1413329/000141332918000007/pm123117form10kwrapinclfsm.htm PHILIP MORRIS INTERNATIONAL INC. 2017 10-K form], Accessed August 2018</ref> {{rp|1}}
+
Philip Morris International cigarettes are sold in more than 180 markets, and in many of these markets they hold the number one or number two market share position. Philip Morris International have a wide range of premium, mid-price and low-price brands. Philip Morris International portfolio comprises both international and local brands and is led by Marlboro, the world’s highest-selling international cigarette, which accounted for approximately 35 percent  of the company's total 2017 cigarette shipment volume. Marlboro is complemented in the premium-price category by Parliament. Other leading international cigarette brands are Bond Street, Chesterfield, L&M, Lark and Philip Morris International. These seven international cigarette brands contributed approximately 75 percent  of cigarette shipment volume in 2017.<ref name="PMI_2017_FORM_10K">SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION website, [https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1413329/000141332918000007/pm123117form10kwrapinclfsm.htm PHILIP MORRIS INTERNATIONAL INC. 2017 10-K form], Accessed 6 August 2018</ref> {{rp|1}} According to Expose Tobacco, in 2020 the cigarette products and IQOS account for 92 and 8 percent of volumes (and 81 and 19 percent of net revenue). <ref>Expose Tobacco website, [https://exposetobacco.org/news/pmi-agm/ Philip Morris International: The Beginning of the End?], 5 May 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020 </ref>
 
 
  “If we stop selling cigarettes, somebody else is going to sell them because people buy them." Andre Calantzopoulos, Sky News Interview <ref> [https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/8152387/marlboro-vows-phase-out-cigarettes-smoke-free-vapes/ Marlboro vows to phase out cigarettes smoke-free vapes], ''The Sun'', 9 January 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
 
  
 
===Key Portfolio===
 
===Key Portfolio===
 
====Marlboro====
 
====Marlboro====
In 2017, Marlboro’s international cigarette share increased slightly to 9.7 percent . The brand’s cigarette share increased in the Asia and EEMA Regions, reflecting robust growth in the Philippines and across markets in North Africa. <ref name="PMI2017AR">Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], Accessed September 2018 </ref>{{rp|1}}
+
In 2017, Marlboro’s international cigarette share increased slightly to 9.7 percent. The brand’s cigarette share increased in the Asia and EEMA Regions, reflecting robust growth in the Philippines and across markets in North Africa. <ref name="PMI2017AR">Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], Accessed 15 September 2018 </ref>{{rp|1}} Philip Morris International Duty Free launched a 2014 limited-edition pack edition at Doha International airport to celebrate the 2014 Chinese New Year of the Horse. <ref> [https://www.dfnionline.com/latest-news/retail/philip-morris-launches-marlboro-limited-edition-pack-in-qatar-27-03-2014/ Philip Morris launches Marlboro limited-edition pack in Qatar], ''DFNI Frontier'', 27 March 2017, Accessed 23 December 2018 </ref>
  
 
====L&M====
 
====L&M====
Line 744: Line 916:
 
In 2017 Philip Morris International's cigarette shipment volume of the following brands increased: Chesterfield, notably driven by Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Venezuela, partly offset by Italy and Russia; and Philip Morris, mainly driven by Russia and Ukraine, notably reflecting successful portfolio consolidation of local, low-price brands in "Others," partly offset by Argentina and Italy.{{r|PMI2017AR|p=25}}
 
In 2017 Philip Morris International's cigarette shipment volume of the following brands increased: Chesterfield, notably driven by Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Venezuela, partly offset by Italy and Russia; and Philip Morris, mainly driven by Russia and Ukraine, notably reflecting successful portfolio consolidation of local, low-price brands in "Others," partly offset by Argentina and Italy.{{r|PMI2017AR|p=25}}
  
===Heated Tobacco Products===
+
====Philip Morris====
According to Philip Morris International's website, the company is engaged in the development and commercialization of smoke-free alternatives to cigarettes. Reduced Risk Products (RRPs) is the term Philip Morris International use to refer to products that present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to smokers who switch to these products versus continued smoking. <ref> Philip Morris International website,[https://www.pmi.com/science-and-innovation/heated-tobacco-products Heated Tobacco Products], Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref> Heated Tobacco Products accounted for USD 823 million of PMI's revenue during the third quarter, or 11 percent of its USD 7.5 billion total revenue. <ref name="PMI_CNBC">[https://www.cnbc.com/2018/10/23/philip-morris-unveils-new-versions-of-iqos-cigarettes-to-boost-sales.html Philip Morris unveils new smokeless cigarettes in a bid to rev up sales], ''CNBC'', October 2018, Accessed 30 October 2018 </ref>  
+
 
 +
The Philip Morris brand is the company’s fourth-largest international brand with a volume of 50 billion cigarettes in 2018, and is sold in over 40 countries.<ref name="PMI_portfolio"> Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/who-we-are/building-leading-brands Building leading brands], Accessed 23 July 2019 </ref>
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 +
====Parliament====
 +
Parliament is the fifth-largest international brand, and the twelfth-largest cigarette brand in the world. In 2018, Parliament volume was 42 billion cigarettes, sold in more than 30 countries, with a strong presence in Russia, Korea, Japan, Turkey, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine.{{r|PMI_portfolio|}}
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 +
====Bond Street====
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Bond Street is Philip Morris International's sixth-largest international brand with a volume of 32 billion cigarettes in 2018.{{r|PMI_portfolio|}}
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====Local Heritage Brands====
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Philip Morris International own a number of local cigarette brands, including: Dji Sam Soe, Sampoerna A and Sampoerna U in Indonesia; Fortune and Jackpot in the Philippines; Belmont and Canadian Classics in Canada; and Delicados in Mexico.{{r|PMI_portfolio|}}
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 +
====Solaris====
 +
Solaris is the first of Philip Morris International's e-vapor products licensed from Altria. Solaris is a battery-powered device that produces a nicotine-containing vapor. In 2015, we launched Solaris in Spain and Israel.{{r|PMI_portfolio|}}
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 +
===Heated Cigarette Products===
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 +
Philip Morris International estimated that IQOS will have 25 million users that have stopped smoking and switched to IQOS by earlier than 2025. <ref> Philip MOrris International, [https://web.archive.org/web/20200221154743/https:/www.pmi.com/sustainability/business-transformation-metrics Business Transformation Metrics], Accessed 3 May 2021 </ref>
 +
Expose Tobacco revealed that despite PMI’s “claimed commitment to harm reduction, it is arguably the least diversified TTC with the highest-risk product portfolio. “ The cigarette and IQOS respectively accounted for 92 percent and 8 percent of volumes (and 81 percent and 19 percent of net revenue) in May 2020. <ref>Expose Tobacco, [https://exposetobacco.org/news/pmi-agm/ Philip Morris International: The Beginning of the End?], 5 May 2020, Accessed 1 December 2020</ref>
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 +
IQOS collects data from its users with microchips placed in IQOS, Philip Morris International has access to the consumption habits of his customers, confirms a study carried out at Stanford University. <ref>[https://www.letemps.ch/economie/liqos-collecte-donnees-utilisateurs L’Iqos collecte les données de ses utilisateurs], ''Le Temps'', 10 March 2020, Accessed 16 March 2020</ref> In 2020, an analysis of Philip Morris International's preclinical studies found that "IQOS is associated with significant pulmonary and immunomodulatory toxicities with no detectable differences between conventional cigarette smokers and those who were switched to IQOS in Philip Morris International’s studies. The study also argued that "Philip Morris International also failed to consider how dual use and secondhand aerosol exposure may further impact, and likely increase, the harms associated with these products". <ref> Moazed F, Chun L, Matthay MA, et al, [https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/27/Suppl_1/s20.citation-tools Assessment of industry data on pulmonary and immunosuppressive effects of IQOS], ''Tobacco Control'',22 October 2018;27:s20-s25., Accessed 1 December 2020 </ref>
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 +
There are two brands of tobacco sticks that are compatible with IQOS: Marlboro HeatSticks and HEETS. Marlboro HeatSticks launched alongside the IQOS device in 2014 and are prominent in Japan, while  HEETS is an updated and more recent version. HEETS flavors are named after colors (Bronze, Sienna, Amber, Yellow, Blue, Turquoise, Purple, Forest Green, and Cool Jade). Marlboro HeatSticks flavors sound more like cigarettes: Smooth Regular, Balanced Regular, Menthol, Mint, Purple Menthol, Yellow Menthol, and Tropical Menthol. <ref name=“PMI_STAN”> Standford Medicine,[https://web.archive.org/web/20210422031902/https://stanfordmedicine.app.box.com/s/d6u5qhssja6skl24t9lx2zhjtr10x99r BIG TOBACCO IS EXPLOITING COVID-19 TO MARKET ITS HARMFUL PRODUCTS], p. 21,  Accessed 1 December 2020</ref>
  
IQOS was first introduced in Nagoya, Japan in 2014. PMI increased IQOS availability from 41 to 44 countries. <ref>[https://www.pmi.com/investor-relations/overview/event-details?EventId=5277236 News], Philip Morris International website, 20 February 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref> On 23 October 2018, Philip Morris International introduced two new IQOS devices — the IQOS 3 and the IQOS 3 Multi — in the markets where IQOS products are already available, Japan and South Korea. {{r|PMI_CNBC}} Philip Morris has 70 IQOS shops in 23 countries, {{r|PMI_Stores}} including a flagship IQOS store in Johannesburg, South Africa. <ref>[https://www.fin24.com/Companies/ICT/philip-morris-opens-first-africa-store-to-stoke-demand-for-alternative-cigarettes-20181116 Philip Morris opens first Africa store to stoke demand for alternative cigarettes], ''Fin 24'', November 2018, Accessed 18 December 2018 </ref> The company's salesmen have been previously caught offering potentially illegal incentives to smokers in UK bars. <ref>[https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/10/15/tobacco-sales-reps-push-free-drinks-sell-wares/ Tobacco sales reps using 'illegal' tactics to sell their products in pubs], ''The Telegraph'', 15 October 2018, Accessed 13 January 2019 </ref> Two new IQOS stores have opened in Manchester, with device sales in the United Kingdom reaching a total of 100,000 over the past two years. <ref> [https://businessmanchester.co.uk/2019/07/05/heated-tobacco-launches-in-manchester/ Heated Tobacco launches In Manchester], ''Business Manchester'', 5 July 2019, Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref>  
+
Philip Morris International opened its first retail store in the Gulf Cooperation Council region dedicated to IQOS. <ref>[https://www.zawya.com/mena/en/business/story/Tobacco_giant_Philip_Morris_opens_first_store_in_UAE_for_smokefree_products-ZAWYA20201007100516/ Tobacco giant Philip Morris opens first store in UAE for 'smoke-free' products], ''Zawya'', 7 October 2020, Accessed 19 November 2020</ref>
  
In November 2018, Philip Morris International paid journalist to attend the global IQOS 3 and IQOS 3 Multi launch in Tokyo. <ref> [https://thefederalist.com/2018/11/14/happened-tried-iqos-heat-sticks-tokyo/ What happened when I tried IQOS heatsticks in Tokto], ''The Federalist'', November 2018, Accessed 2 December 2018 </ref> Earlier in the year, the company flew a group of African journalists from Malawi, Tanzania, Senegal and Zimbabwe to Johannesburg for a day-long media workshop to promote IQOS. <ref> [https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2018-08-19-professionals-co-opted-to-back-tobacco-giants/ Professionals co-opted to back tobacco giants], Daily Maverick, 19 August 2018, Accessed 18 January 2019 </ref> Philip Morris International is considering a launch of IQOS in India <ref> [http://www.businessworld.in/article/Juul-Labs-Inc-Plans-India-E-Cigarette-Entry-With-New-Hires-Subsidiary/30-01-2019-166628/ Juul Labs Inc Plans India E-Cigarette Entry With New Hires Subsidiary], ''Business World'', 31 January 2019, Accessed 18 April 2019 </ref> and the Philippines <ref>[https://www.philstar.com/business/2019/02/18/1894497/phillip-morris-sell-heat-not-burn-tobacco-product-phl PM sell heat-not-burn tobacco product], ''Philstar'', 18 February 2019, Accessed 17 April 2019, </ref>and the UAE. <ref>[https://www.arabianbusiness.com/retail/423271-iqos-to-launch-in-stores-across-gcc-in-july iQOS to launch in stores across GCC in July], ''Arabian Business'', 6 July 2019, Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref>
+
In August 2020, Philip Morris International announced the commercialisation of KT&G’s heated cigarettes  lil SOLID and its accompanying Fiit consumables in Russia. The announcement followed an agreement signed in January 2020 by PMI and KT&G. <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/web/20210511023516/https://www.pmi.com/media-center/press-releases/press-release-details/?newsId=22731 Philip Morris International Inc. Begins Commercialization of KT&G Products Outside of South Korea to Accelerate the Achievement of a Smoke-Free Future], Accessed 11 May 2021</ref>
  
    “We are building our future on smoke-free products… they are not harmless, they are a much better choice than continued smoking.” Gabriela Wurcel, VP/Corporate Affairs for Latin America and Canada <ref>[https://www.warc.com/newsandopinion/news/philip_morris_seeks_major_transformation/41515 PM seeks major transformation], ''Warc'', 7 January 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref>
+
In 2019, heated tobacco unit shipment volume increased by 44 percent to 60 billion units. {{r|MI_CONF2020|p=11}} This result reflects broad-based growth across our launch markets, with notable contributions from the EU Region, Japan and Russia. {{r|PMI_Q4results|p=3}} Heated tobacco units still only make up around 8 percent of the company's total shipment volumes {{r|PMI_Q4results|p=3}} and 19 percent of Philip Morris International's total net revenue.{{r|PMI_Q4results|p=3}} Philip Morris International launched IQOS in 8 markets.
 +
The number of IOQS users is approaching 14 million. <ref>PMI website, [https://philipmorrisinternational.gcs-web.com/static-files/ffb61599-060b-4f4d-8811-b78e81094475 CEO Investor Forum - Strategic Investor Initiative], 24 February 2020, Accessed 15 April 2020</ref> The current goal is to ensure close to 40 million smokers "switch" to IQOS by 2025. {{r|MI_CONF2020|p=20}}
 +
Philip Morris International is engaged in the development and commercialization of smoke-free alternatives to cigarettes. Reduced Risk Products (also known as "RRPs") is the term Philip Morris International use to refer to products that present, are likely to present, or have the potential to present less risk of harm to smokers who switch to these products versus continued smoking. During a presentation in February 2020, Philip Morris International acknowledged that heated tobacco products still only constitute a small amount of the nicotine market international retail value - less than 5 percent. <ref name="PMI_CAGNY2020"> [https://philipmorrisinternational.gcs-web.com/static-files/147f7fd1-3302-42dd-b305-8b786c1eeef5 Consumer Analyst Group of New York (CAGNY) Conference], p. 14, 19 February 2020, Accessed 27 February 2020 </ref>
  
At the 2018 Consumer Analyst Group of New York Conference, Philip Morris International, CEO André Calantzopoulos read out a statement which said:
+
At the end of 2019, PMI had 199 IQOS stores over 3,000 exclusive IQOS retail “touchpoints” around the world.{{r|PMI_SUS|p=59}} The company markets heated tobacco units under the brand names HEETS, HEETS Marlboro and HEETS FROM MARLBORO, defined collectively as HEETS, as well as Marlboro HeatSticks and Parliament HeatSticks. Heated Tobacco Products accounted for USD 823 million of PMI's revenue during the third quarter, or 11 percent of its USD 7.5 billion total revenue. <ref name="PMI_CNBC">[https://www.cnbc.com/2018/10/23/philip-morris-unveils-new-versions-of-iqos-cigarettes-to-boost-sales.html Philip Morris unveils new smokeless cigarettes in a bid to rev up sales], ''CNBC'', October 2018, Accessed 30 October 2018 </ref> Philip Morris International is considering a launch of IQOS in India <ref> [http://www.businessworld.in/article/Juul-Labs-Inc-Plans-India-E-Cigarette-Entry-With-New-Hires-Subsidiary/30-01-2019-166628/ Juul Labs Inc Plans India E-Cigarette Entry With New Hires Subsidiary], ''Business World'', 31 January 2019, Accessed 17 April 2019 </ref>, and the Philippines <ref>[https://www.philstar.com/business/2019/02/18/1894497/phillip-morris-sell-heat-not-burn-tobacco-product-phl PM sell heat-not-burn tobacco product], ''Philstar'', 18 February 2019, Accessed 20 April 2019 </ref>. The company will open five stores in Ukraine - in Dnipro, Kharkiv, Odessa and Lviv. <ref>[https://trademaster.ua/news/16241 PHILIP MORRIS ОТКРОЕТ 5 БУТИКОВ ПО ПРОДАЖЕ УСТРОЙСТВ ДЛЯ НАГРЕВАНИЯ ТАБАКА IQOS Источник: https://trademaster.ua/news/16241], ''Tradmaster'', 22 September 2019, Accessed 10 October 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
In October 2019, over 600 people attended the event, the first global launch ever undertaken by Philip Morris International where the company introduced the new IQOS 3 and IQOS 3 Multi products. <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/web/20210511020852/https://www.pmi.com/media-center/news/iqos-3-and-iqos-3-multi-global-launch IQOS 3 and IQOS 3 Multi: Global Launch], 23 October 2018, Accessed 11 May 2021</ref> In September 2019, Philip Morris International launched IQOS 3 DUO. The device allows two consecutive uses without recharging the holder, while the holder charging time is much faster compared to IQOS 3 and IQOS 2.4+. <ref> Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/web/20210511020404/https://www.pmi.com/media-center/press-releases/press-release-details/?newsId=21536 Philip Morris International Inc. Launches IQOS 3 DUO], 26 September 2019, Accessed 11 May 2021 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Philip Morris International announced a global collaboration agreement with KT&G for the commercialisation of their smoke-free products outside of Korea, starting with Russia in August 2020.<ref>[https://vaporvoice.net/2020/08/06/ktg-exporting-heat-not-burn-device-to-russia/ KT&G Exporting Heat-Not-Burn Device to Russia], ''Vaporvoice'', 6 August 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020 </ref> The key rationale for this agreement is to accelerate the growth of the smoke-free category, which will require multiple products providing a wide array of brand, taste, price and technology choices to adult smokers. The agreement will run for an initial period of 3 years, with the intention to expand the market footprint based on commercial success. {{r|PMI_Q4results|p=8}}  The two companies plan for global collaboration with the intention to actively expand to cover many markets, based on commercial success. The agreement allows Philip Morris International to distribute current KT&G smoke-free products, and their evolutions, on an exclusive basis, and does not restrict PMI from distributing its own or third-party products. KT&G’s smoke-free products include heated tobacco products (e.g., Lil Mini and Lil Plus), hybrid technologies that combine heated cigarette and e-vapor technologies (e.g., Lil Hybrid), and e-vapor products (e.g., Lil Vapor). <ref> [https://finance.yahoo.com/news/philip-morris-international-inc-announces-000000992.html Philip Morris International Inc. Announces Agreement with KT&G to Accelerate the Achievement of a Smoke-Free Future], ''Yahoo'', 29 January 2020, Accessed 19 February 2020 </ref>
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 +
In February 2019, Philip Morris International said the technology in its new "vaping" products could be used to offer users activity-tracking services and even life insurance rebates. <ref>[https://news.yahoo.com/philip-morris-eyes-tech-gadgets-smoke-free-market-173105773.html PM eyes tea gadgets smoke-are market], ''Yahoo News'', 14 February 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref> Two months later, the company setup a life insurance venture "Reviti" in the United Kingdom which will see it offer "significant discounts to smokers who quit or switch to one of its alternative products." <ref>[https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/tobacco-life-insurance-discount-philip-morris-quit-smoking-a8885956.html Tobacco firm Philip Morris launches life insurance company offering discounts to ex-smokers], ''Independent'', 26 April 2019, Accessed 20 April 2019 </ref> Reviti will offer cheaper monthly premiums to policy holders who start using its e-cigarettes, or quit entirely. <ref> [https://www.cnbc.com/2019/04/23/tobacco-company-philip-morris-launches-life-insurance-company-reviti.html Tobacco company Philip Morris starts life insurance firm that offers discounts to smokers who quit], ''CNBC'', 23 April 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
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 +
At the Philip Morris International 2017 Full-Year Results and launch webcast overview, CEO Calantzopoulos stated the company expects the price of IQOS to be reduced in upcoming years. Calantzopoulos also explained Philip Morris International's ongoing efforts to have IQOS classified as not a 'tobacco product'. According to Calantzopoulos, a recently released report by the United Kingdom's government had endorsed IQOS as “healthier” option and suggested that other governments are joining “a movement” at a faster than expected rate. <ref name="MOTLEY_FOOL_Q42017_EARNINGS-TRANSCRIPT"> The Motley Fool, [https://www.fool.com/earnings/call-transcripts/2018/02/08/philip-morris-international-inc-pm-q4-2017-earning.aspx Philip Morris International Inc. (PM) Q4 2017 Earnings Conference Call Transcript], February 2018, Accessed 12 September 2018 </ref> The company announced its latest product, IQOS 3 DUO. The product is underway and the company anticipates full year heated tobacco unit shipment volume of approximately 59 billion units in line with full year in market sales.<ref>Seeking Alpha, [https://seekingalpha.com/article/4310313-philip-morris-international-inc-pm-management-presents-morgan-stanley-global-consumer-retail Philip Morris International Inc. (PM) Management Presents at Morgan Stanley Global Consumer & Retail Conference - Transcript], 3 December 2019, Accessed 16 December 2019 </ref> IQOS 3 DUO will be available in Japan this month and subsequently rolled out in most of the markets where IQOS is currently available by the end of 2019. <ref> Philip Morris International website, [https://philipmorrisinternational.gcs-web.com/news-releases/news-release-details/philip-morris-international-inc-launches-iqos-3-duo Philip Morris International Inc. Launches IQOS 3 DUO], 26 September 2019, Accessed 10 October 2019 </ref> Philip Morris International is launching a travel-exclusive edition of its IQOS 3 DUO product at duty free locations in Japan, South Korea and Dubai.  <ref>[https://www.moodiedavittreport.com/philip-morris-international-launches-travel-exclusive-iqos-3-duo-edition/ Philip Morris International launches travel-exclusive IQOS 3 DUO edition], ''The Moodie Davitt Report'', 3 December 2019, Accessed 15 December 2019</ref>
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In October 2019, the market share of heated tobacco units in IQOS markets, excluding the United States, was up by 1.3 points to 5.1 percent. {{r|PMIdividends|p=1}}
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====Australia====
 +
The Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration rejected an application from Philip Morris International, which would have allowed the sale of heated tobacco products, a smoke-free product that heats tobacco rather than burning it, said to result in a significant reduction in the number and levels of harmful chemicals emitted compared to cigarette smoke. <ref>[https://www.adelaidenow.com.au/lifestyle/health/heated-tobacco-australia-tga-rejects-application-from-philip-morris/news-story/ba487dc10d09a1c0b6f4a30b518b496e Heated tobacco Australia: TGA rejects application from Philip Morris], ''Adelaide Now'', 24 August 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020 </ref>
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====Czech Republic====
 +
"Translation from Czech
 +
Philip Morris International launched the iQOS veev product on the Czech market as the very first European market. Unlike the iqos device, which works on the basis of tobacco heating, it is an electronic cigarette. The new product works on the principle of evaporating e-liquid containing nicotine. Unlike the traditional wick and bobbin system used by other electronic cigarettes, the iQOS veev heater is in constant contact with the e-liquid in the cartridge. Digital controls monitor the e-liquid level and turn off the device if it drops too low. Product development took place in Switzerland." <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.idnes.cz/ekonomika/test-a-spotrebitel/british-american-tobacco-philip-morris-international-iqos-veev-elektronicka-cigareta-kurak-tabak.A201210_150926_test_maz Kouření už není in. Philip Morris chce v Česku prorazit i vapováním], ''idnes'', 14 December 2020, Accessed 14 January 2021</ref>
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====Hungary====
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In 2019, Philip Morris International launched IQOS in 8 new markets, including Hungary.{{r|PMI_Q4results|p=4}}
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====Italy====
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PMI introduced VEEV e-cigarette in February 2021. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.primaonline.it/2021/02/16/320481/arriva-in-italia-veev-nuova-sigaretta-elettronica-di-philip-morris-international-lancio-pilota-a-milano-torino-e-genova-e-sul-canale-e-commerce/ Arriva in Italia VEEV, nuova sigaretta elettronica di Philip Morris International. Lancio pilota a Milano, Torino e Genova e sul canale e-commerce], ''Prime online'', 16 February 2021, Accessed 26 February 2021</ref>
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====Japan====
 +
IQOS was first introduced in Nagoya, Japan in 2014. Japan is the most developed IQOS launch market in terms of geographic coverage. On 23 October 2018, Philip Morris International introduced two new IQOS devices — the IQOS 3 and the IQOS 3 Multi — in the markets where IQOS products are already available, Japan and South Korea. {{r|PMI_CNBC}} In November 2018, Philip Morris International paid journalist to attend the global IQOS 3 and IQOS 3 Multi launch in Tokyo. <ref> [https://thefederalist.com/2018/11/14/happened-tried-iqos-heat-sticks-tokyo/ What happened when I tried IQOS heatsticks in Tokto], ''The Federalist'', November 2018, Accessed 23 December 2018 </ref>
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====Sweden====
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In 2019, Philip Morris International launched IQOS in 8 new markets, including Sweden.{{r|PMI_Q4results|p=4}}
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====Pakistan====
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Philip Morris International  is allegedly advocating for the legalization of e-cigarettes in Pakistan. <ref>[https://propakistani.pk/2020/07/17/pakistan-might-officially-get-heated-tobacco-devices-soon/#comments/2728220 Pakistan Might Officially Get Heated Tobacco Devices Soon], ''Pro Pakistani'', 24 July 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020</ref>
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 +
====South Africa====
 +
In 2018, flew a group of African journalists from Malawi, Tanzania, Senegal and Zimbabwe to Johannesburg, South Africa, for a day-long media workshop to promote IQOS. <ref> [https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2018-08-19-professionals-co-opted-to-back-tobacco-giants/ Professionals co-opted to back tobacco giants], Daily Maverick, 19 August 2018, Accessed 12 January 2019 </ref> 
 +
 
 +
====South Korea====
 +
Philip Morris International is expanding its e-cigarette business and rolling out new flavors in Korea. <ref>[https://markets.businessinsider.com/news/stocks/philip-morris-bets-ecigarette-flavors-competition-juul-ktg-south-korea-2019-7-1028372466 Philip Morris bets cigarette flavours competition jul ktg south korea], Business Insider, 22 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
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====Spain====
 +
Philip Morris opened its IOQS flagship store in Spain. <ref>[https://www.eleconomista.es/empresas-finanzas/noticias/10236555/12/19/Philip-Morris-abre-una-flagship-en-la-milla-de-oro-de-Madrid-para-crecer-con-el-tabaco-sin-humo.html 'Marlboro' abre una 'flagship' en la milla de oro de Madrid para crecer con el tabaco sin humo], El Economista, 4 December 2019, Accessed 24 January 2020 </ref>
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 +
====United Arab Emirates====
 +
In July 2019, Philip Morris International launched the IQOS 3 and IQOS 3 Multi heated-tobacco products in the UAE. <ref> [https://www.zawya.com/mena/en/press-releases/story/Philip_Morris_International_launches_the_worlds_leading_heatedtobacco_product_in_the_UAE-ZAWYA20190727085904/ Philip Morris International launches the world’s leading heated tobacco product in UAE], Zawya, 27 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
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====United States====
 +
IQOS is now available in the United States following the launch in the initial lead market of Atlanta, Georgia. Altria also began the expansion of IQOS in the Richmond Virginia market.<ref>Seeking Alpha, [https://seekingalpha.com/article/4310313-philip-morris-international-inc-pm-management-presents-morgan-stanley-global-consumer-retail Philip Morris International Inc. (PM) Management Presents at Morgan Stanley Global Consumer & Retail Conference - Transcript], 3 December 2019, Accessed 16 December 2019 </ref> The U.S. Food and Drug Administration authorized IQOS 3 for sale in the United States. <ref>Business Wire, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20201207005912/en/Philip-Morris-International-Announces-U.S.-Food-and-Drug-Administration-Authorization-of-IQOS-3-for-Sale-in-the-United-States Philip Morris International Announces U.S. Food and Drug Administration Authorization of IQOS 3 for Sale in the United States], 7 December 2020, Accessed 14 January 2021</ref>
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The company faces the possibility of having imports of its IQOS heated-tobacco sticks to the U.S. blocked as early as November 2021 in an intensifying legal battle with British American Tobacco Plc over cigarette alternatives. BAT’s subsidiary Reynolds American Inc. seeks to block imports of the sticks as it alleges that the tobacco heating technology used in IQOS devices infringed its patents. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-01-25/philip-morris-faces-risk-of-cigarette-alternative-block-in-u-s Philip Morris Faces Risk of U.S. Cigarette Alternative Block], ''Bloomberg'',  25 January 2021, Accessed 26 February 2021 </ref>
  
  “Nearly five million adult consumers around the world have already stopped smoking and switched to IQOS… Regulators must differentiate supply and demand measures – for example, product, communication and fiscal policies – based on product attributes and risk profiles. This is of critical importance for the people who smoke and who deserve policy choices that respect them, and their ability to decide. And policies should be sensible, and based on principled pragmatism rather than influenced by ideology. 1.1 billion men and women who smoke cannot be held hostage to, and misled by, absolutism that foments nihilistic rhetoric. Otherwise the vision of a smoke-free world will be harder and take longer to materialize, to their detriment.<ref name ="SEEKINGALPHA_Q12018_EARNINGS-TRANSCRIPT">Seeking Alpha, [https://seekingalpha.com/article/4164124-philip-morris-international-pm-q1-2018-results-earnings-call-transcript] Philip Morris International (PM) on Q1 2018 Results - Earnings Call Transcript], March 2018, Accessed 17 September 2018</ref>.
+
====IQOS marketing====
 +
Philip Morris International has closed almost all of its recently opened shops in Britain for IQOS, two years after revealing ambitious expansion plans. The tobacco company had opened about 16 IQOS stores, mostly across London, Manchester and Bristol, and had said in June 2019 that it was considering opening hundreds of outlets in the country as part of its plans to drive sales of alternatives to combustible cigarettes. <ref> [http://web.archive.org/save/https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/philip-morris-stubs-out-its-own-heated-tobacco-stores-mcj25ms8k Philip Morris stubs out its own heated tobacco stores] ''The Times'', 27 July 2021 ,Accessed 2 August 2021</ref>
  
At the Philip Morris International 2017 Full-Year Results and launch webcast overview, CEO Calantzopoulos stated the company expects the price of IQOS to be reduced in upcoming years. Calantzopoulos also explained Philip Morris International's ongoing efforts to have IQOS classified as not a 'tobacco product'. According to Calantzopoulos, a recently released report by the U.K. government had endorsed IQOS as “healthier” option and suggested that other governments are joining “a movement” at a faster than expected rate. <ref name="MOTLEY_FOOL_Q42017_EARNINGS-TRANSCRIPT"> The Motley Fool [https://www.fool.com/earnings/call-transcripts/2018/02/08/philip-morris-international-inc-pm-q4-2017-earning.aspx Philip Morris International Inc. (PM) Q4 2017 Earnings Conference Call Transcript], February 2018, Accessed 19 September 2018 </ref>
+
In 2019, Philip Morris International launched IQOS in Egypt <ref> [https://www.elwatannews.com/news/details/4387223 طرح سجائر "أقل ضررا" في مصر.. قريبا], ''Home'', 20 October 2019, Accessed 26 November 2019 </ref>, Kazakhstan <ref>[https://esquire.kz/iqos-3-duo-kazakhstan IQOS 3 DUO презентовали в Алматы], ''Esquire'', 6 November 2019, Accessed 27 November 2019 </ref>  and Slovakia <ref>[http://www.teraz.sk/najnovsie/bezdymovu-alternativu-fajcenia-v-sr-v/424251-clanok.html Bezdymovú alternatívu fajčenia v SR využíva už 150.000 zákazníkov], ''Teraz.sk'', 15 October, Accessed 26 November 2019 </ref>.
  
Co-opting and pushing the “quit” message in the media in recent marketing shows how they are strategically aligning their new product segment to work with the more difficult market conditions (regulation/education/social stigma) of more advanced economies. The use of passive language to point out statistics suggesting the number of tobacco consumers will remain stagnant is both non-committal to the traditional message of quitting and subtly absolving themselves of responsibility. Philip Morris International also points out that in cases where a smoker doesn't quit tobacco, Reduced Risk Products (RRPs) offer “a viable alternative” for them to continue consuming tobacco as a ‘mid-way point’ or ‘third option’ to quitting. In the 2015 annual report, CEO André Calantzopoulos and Chairman of the Board, Louis C. Camilleri outlined the organizations goals to:  
+
Co-opting and pushing the “quit” message in the media in recent marketing shows how they are strategically aligning their new product segment to work with the more difficult market conditions (regulation/education/social stigma) of more advanced economies. The use of passive language to point out statistics suggesting the number of tobacco consumers will remain stagnant is both non-committal to the traditional message of quitting and subtly absolving themselves of responsibility. Philip Morris International also points out that in cases where a smoker doesn't quit tobacco, Reduced Risk Products (RRPs) offer “a viable alternative” for them to continue consuming tobacco as a ‘mid-way point’ or ‘third option’ to quitting. In the 2015 annual report, CEO André Calantzopoulos and former Chairman of the Board, Louis C. Camilleri outlined the organizations goals to:  
   “lead a full-scale effort to ensure that Reduced Risk Products (RRPs) ultimately replace cigarettes to the benefit of adult smokers, society, our company and our shareholders.” <ref name="PMI_2016_AR">[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjYzNjk3fENoaWxkSUQ9MzcwOTE0fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International, 2016 Annual Report], 2016, Accessed 12 August 2018</ref> {{rp|1}}  
+
   “lead a full-scale effort to ensure that Reduced Risk Products ultimately replace cigarettes to the benefit of adult smokers, society, our company and our shareholders.” <ref name="PMI_2016_AR">[http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjYzNjk3fENoaWxkSUQ9MzcwOTE0fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1 Philip Morris International, 2016 Annual Report], February 2016, Accessed 12 August 2018</ref> {{rp|1}}  
  
 
The same message was also presented across the 2016 annual report. Philip Morris International keeps on using bold and broad statements:  
 
The same message was also presented across the 2016 annual report. Philip Morris International keeps on using bold and broad statements:  
Line 766: Line 1,012:
 
   "2016 was a pivotal year for Philip Morris International, reflecting exciting progress in our transformation from a cigarette company to one that is focused on RRPs. While our cigarette portfolio continued to drive our income growth, we began to see clear signs of the enormous potential for our RRP portfolio.”{{r|PMI_2016_AR}}
 
   "2016 was a pivotal year for Philip Morris International, reflecting exciting progress in our transformation from a cigarette company to one that is focused on RRPs. While our cigarette portfolio continued to drive our income growth, we began to see clear signs of the enormous potential for our RRP portfolio.”{{r|PMI_2016_AR}}
  
In february 2019, Philip Morris International said the technology in its new "vaping" products could be used to offer users activity-tracking services and even life insurance rebates. <ref>[https://news.yahoo.com/philip-morris-eyes-tech-gadgets-smoke-free-market-173105773.html PM eyes tea gadgets smoke-are market], ''Yahoo News'', 14 February 2019, Accessed 20 April 2019 </ref> Two months later, the company setup a life insurance venture "Reviti" in the United Kingdom which will see it offer "significant discounts to smokers who quit or switch to one of its alternative products." <ref>[https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/tobacco-life-insurance-discount-philip-morris-quit-smoking-a8885956.html Tobacco firm Philip Morris launches life insurance company offering discounts to ex-smokers], ''Independent'', 26 April 2019, Accessed 21 April 2019 </ref> Reviti will offer cheaper monthly premiums to policy holders who start using its e-cigarettes, or quit entirely. <ref> [https://www.cnbc.com/2019/04/23/tobacco-company-philip-morris-launches-life-insurance-company-reviti.html
+
At the 2018 Consumer Analyst Group of New York Conference, Philip Morris International, CEO André Calantzopoulos read out a statement which said:
Tobacco company Philip Morris starts life insurance firm that offers discounts to smokers who quit], ''CNBC'', 23 April 2019, 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
 
 +
  “Nearly five million adult consumers around the world have already stopped smoking and switched to IQOS… Regulators must differentiate supply and demand measures – for example, product, communication and fiscal policies – based on product attributes and risk profiles. This is of critical importance for the people who smoke and who deserve policy choices that respect them, and their ability to decide. And policies should be sensible, and based on principled pragmatism rather than influenced by ideology. 1.1 billion men and women who smoke cannot be held hostage to, and misled by, absolutism that foments nihilistic rhetoric. Otherwise the vision of a smoke-free world will be harder and take longer to materialize, to their detriment.<ref name ="SEEKINGALPHA_Q12018_EARNINGS-TRANSCRIPT">Seeking Alpha, [https://seekingalpha.com/article/4164124-philip-morris-international-pm-q1-2018-results-earnings-call-transcript Philip Morris International (PM) on Q1 2018 Results - Earnings Call Transcript], March 2018, Accessed 10 September 2018</ref>.
  
===Sales of Heated Tobacco products in Japan===
+
Other Philip Morris International's executives also used the same language around IQOS:
 +
  “We are building our future on smoke-free products… they are not harmless, they are a much better choice than continued smoking.” Gabriela Wurcel, VP/Corporate Affairs for Latin America and Canada <ref>[https://www.warc.com/newsandopinion/news/philip_morris_seeks_major_transformation/41515 PM seeks major transformation], ''Warc'', 7 January 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref>
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
CEO André Calantzopoulos said in an interview with Fox Business:  
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |
+
  “It’s combustion in the cigarette that causes the toxicants… It’s the fact that we burn tobacco or any other organic matter. Nicotine is addictive, but it's widely recognized [that it] is not an issue in terms of disease genesis."<ref>[https://www.foxbusiness.com/markets/philip-morris-aims-replace-cigarettes-as-fast-as-possible Philip Morris aims to replace cigarettes 'as fast as possible', company says], ''Fox Business'', 22 October 2019, Accessed 26 November 2019 </ref>
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Price
+
 
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" | Number of Tobacco Brands Available
+
PMI describes IQOS as a “Heat Not Burn” [heated cigarette] device– a category of products more accurately described as “heated tobacco.” {{r|PMI_STAN|p=44}} While much of IQOS advertising is of a type which possesses appeal to underage youth (e.g., glamour, trendy young adult models, flavor varieties) relatively few of their ads appear specifically  targeted to attract underage teens. {{r|PMI_STAN|p=60}}
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Available Areas
+
 
|-
+
IQOS  is  often  paired  with  beauty  and  is  promoted  as  something  which  will  improve  your appearance. IQOS ran an advertising campaign called Hello Beauty (“This Changes Your Kisses”), in which they partnered with fashion companies Douglas and Molecule F and branded their stores as “IQOS Beauty Hubs.” Social media marketing for the partnership featured women holding IQOS devices the same color as their lipstick.  Additionally, IQOS hires models to promote their product. For example, they partnered with Pophouse, a modeling agency in the Canary Islands, to staff many of their events. Because of this, IQOS staff will often be the most fashionable people at their events. They’re people you want to emulate if you’re concerned with being trendy, and they stylize the brand as cool and hip.” {{r|PMI_STAN|p=57}}
|Ploom Tech <ref name="PMI_REUTERART"> [https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Business-Trends/New-rules-in-Japan-take-aim-at-heated-tobacco New rules in Japan take aim at heated tobacco], ''Reuters'', February 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref>
+
 
([[Japan Tobacco International]])
+
===E-vapor===
|4,000
+
In January 2020, Philip Morris International launched next generation e-vapor product - IQOS MESH. The produc  uses a metallic mesh punctured with tiny holes to heat a pre-filled, pre-sealed e-liquid cap (called VEEV) that contains nicotine and flavors. In each VEEV cap, there is a new MESH heater, eliminating the need to manually replace it. The consumer activates the heating process by pressing on a button. As the heater is in contact with the e-liquid in the cap, it heats the e-liquid to generate a nicotine-containing vapor. <ref>Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/smoke-free-products/mesh-taking-e-cigarettes-further E-Vapor Products], January 2020, Accessed 28 January 2020 </ref>  IQOS Mesh 2.0 will launch in the third quarter of 2020. The launch was planned for earlier in the year, but put on hold due to the confusion in the public around the health of vaping, especially with the death cases in the US. {{r|PMI_Q4results|p=7}} IQOS MESH 2.0 will operate  in a small number of geographies, with 10 markets making up around 70 percent of the approximately 25 million international adult users. Of these 10 markets, 7 also have a meaningful limit on nicotine. {{r|PMI_Q4results|p=8}}
|5
 
|Tokyo, Osaka, Sapporo,Sendai, Yokohama, Nagoya, Hiroshima, Fukuoka
 
|-
 
|IQOS {{r|PMI_REUTERART}}  
 
([[Philip Morris International]])
 
|10,980
 
|6
 
|Nationwide
 
|-
 
|GLO {{r|PMI_REUTERART}}
 
([[British American Tobacco]])
 
|8,000
 
|8
 
|Nationwide
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
 
===Volumes===
 
===Volumes===
According to Philip Morris International's 2017 Annual report, the total cigarette and heated tobacco unit shipment volume of 798.2 billion units declined by 2.7 percent, primarily reflecting lower cigarette industry volume in the Asia and Eastern Europe, Middle East & Africa regions, partly offset by higher heated tobacco unit volume, driven principally by Japan.<ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
  
====Volume of Cigarettes by Region====
+
The cigarette and heated tobacco unit shipment volume down by 2.1 percent in October 2019, reflecting cigarette shipment volume down by 5.9 percent and heated tobacco unit shipment volume up by 84.8 percent. On a like-for-like basis, cigarette and heated tobacco unit shipment volume was down by 1.4 percent. {{r|PMIdividends|p=1}}
 +
 
 +
Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco have been caught drastically underreporting their production and even using their facilities to roll out black-market cigarettes. In a 2017 raid, Pakistani authorities found 1.3 million black-market cigarettes with the branding of a Philip Morris subsidiary in a van leaving one of the company’s former factories—which the tobacco giant was apparently using as an undeclared warehouse. That same year, Philip Morris International had reported a decrease in production, claiming competition from illicit manufacturers. This under-reporting has added up to a tax shortfall of as much as 47 billion rupees between 2015 and 2018. <ref> Qrius, [https://qrius.com/pakistans-tobacco-epidemic-leaves-it-in-no-state-to-fight-the-coronavirus%EF%BB%BF/ Pakistan’s tobacco epidemic leaves it in no state to fight the coronavirus], 31 March 2020, Accessed 21 April 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
====Cigarette volumes by region====
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
! Region
 
! Region
! 2018 <ref name ="PMI_AR2019">2018 FOURTH QUARTER & FULL YEAR RESULTS, [https://www.pmi.com/investor-relations/reports-filings PMI website], p. 5, February 2019, Accessed March 2019 </ref>
+
!2020 <ref name ="PMI_AR2020">Philip Morris International website, [http://web.archive.org/save/https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/investor_relation/pmi_2020_annualreport.pdf?sfvrsn=402b8eb4_2], p. 26, February 2021, Accessed 17 August 2021 </ref>
 +
! 2019{{r|PMI_2019|p=83-84}}
 +
! 2018 <ref name ="PMI_AR2019">Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/investor-relations/reports-filings 2018 FOURTH QUARTER & FULL YEAR RESULTS], p. 5, February 2019, 6 Accessed March 2019 </ref>
 
! 2017 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2017 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2016 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2016 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
Line 810: Line 1,047:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| European Union
 
| European Union
 +
| 163,420
 +
| 174,319
 
| 179,622
 
| 179,622
 
| 187,293
 
| 187,293
Line 817: Line 1,056:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Eastern Europe
 
| Eastern Europe
 +
| 93,462
 +
| 100,644
 
| 108,718
 
| 108,718
 
| 119,398
 
| 119,398
Line 824: Line 1,065:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| EMEA
 
| EMEA
 +
|NA
 +
| NA
 
| NA
 
| NA
 
| 256,157
 
| 256,157
Line 831: Line 1,074:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Middle East & Africa  
 
| Middle East & Africa  
 +
| 117,999
 +
| 134,568
 
| 136,605
 
| 136,605
 
| 136,759
 
| 136,759
Line 838: Line 1,083:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Asia
 
| Asia
 +
| NA
 +
| NA
 
| NA
 
| NA
 
| 234,253
 
| 234,253
Line 845: Line 1,092:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|South & Southeast Asia
 
|South & Southeast Asia
 +
| 144,788
 +
| 174,934
 
| 178,469
 
| 178,469
 
| 171,600
 
| 171,600
Line 852: Line 1,101:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| East Asia & Australia
 
| East Asia & Australia
 +
| 45,100
 +
| 49,951
 
| 56,163
 
| 56,163
 
| 62,653
 
| 62,653
Line 859: Line 1,110:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Latin America & Canada
 
| Latin America & Canada
 +
| 63,749
 +
| 72,293
 
| 80,738
 
| 80,738
 
| 84,223
 
| 84,223
Line 866: Line 1,119:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Total
 
| Total
 +
| 628,518
 +
| 706,709
 
| 740,315
 
| 740,315
 
| 761,926
 
| 761,926
Line 873: Line 1,128:
 
|}
 
|}
  
====Product Unit Volumes====
+
====Volumes of cigarettes and heated cigarette units globally====
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Product Category
+
! Product Category  
 +
! 2020<ref name="PMI_AR2020/>
 +
! 2019 {{r|PMI_2019|p=21}}
 
! 2018 {{r|PMI_AR2019}}
 
! 2018 {{r|PMI_AR2019}}
 
! 2017 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2017 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2016 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2016 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
 
! 2015 <ref name="PMI_AR_2017_Consolidated_Operating_Results/>
! 2014 <ref name= "PMI_AR14"> Philip Morris International, [http://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReportArchive/p/NYSE_PM_2014.pdf Annual Report 2018], P.29, Accessed December 2018 </ref>
+
! 2014 <ref name= "PMI_AR14"> Philip Morris International, [http://www.annualreports.com/HostedData/AnnualReportArchive/p/NYSE_PM_2014.pdf Annual Report 2018], P.29, Accessed 23 December 2018 </ref>
 
|-
 
|-
| Tobacco Units (in millions)
+
| Tobacco Units (in million units)
 +
|628,518
 +
| 706,709
 
| 740,315
 
| 740,315
 
| 761,962
 
| 761,962
Line 889: Line 1,148:
 
| 855.9
 
| 855.9
 
|-
 
|-
| Heated tobacco (in billions)
+
| Heated tobacco (in million units)
 +
|76,111
 +
| 59,652
 
| 41,372
 
| 41,372
 
| 36,226
 
| 36,226
Line 897: Line 1,158:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Total
 
| Total
 +
|704,629
 +
| 766,361
 
| 781,687
 
| 781,687
 
| 798,152
 
| 798,152
Line 903: Line 1,166:
 
| 855.9
 
| 855.9
 
|-
 
|-
| Percentage
 
| (2.1)
 
| (2.7)
 
| (3.2)
 
| (1.0)
 
| (2.8)
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Marketing and External Relations==
+
==Marketing and Social Media==
 +
===Marketing to Kids===
 +
PMFTC Inc., a merger of Philip Morris International Inc. and Fortune Tobacco in the Philippines, is allowing authorized resellers to sell cigarettes online. The company was allegedly implementing age-gating to ensure that none of its products were sold to minors. <ref>[https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1302353/dof-to-ban-online-sale-of-sin-products DOF to ban online sale of ‘sin’ products], ''Inquirer'', 6 July 2020, Accessed 20 July 2020</ref>
 +
 
 +
In November 2019, Philip Morris Misr launched an awareness campaign to "limit access to tobacco products for children less than 18 years old". The campaign costed with EGP 4 million (USD 248 thousand) investment. The campaign will last for three months covering all of Egypt. <ref>[https://menafn.com/1099340328/Egypt-Philip-Morris-Misr-launches-EGP-4m-awareness-campaign-to-limit-childrens-access-to-tobacco-products Egypt- Philip Morris Misr launches EGP 4m awareness campaign to limit children's access to tobacco products], ''Mena FM'', 28 November 2019, Accessed 16 December 2019 </ref>
  
===Media and Marketing===
+
Reuters investigation has revealed that Philip Morris International used young social media influencers to promote IQS, including a 21-year-old woman in Russia. <ref>[https://mobile.reuters.com/video/2019/05/11/philip-morris-suspends-controversial-soc?videoId=548803455&videoChannel=5 Philip Morris suspends 'influencer' marketing for IQOS], ''Reuters'', 13 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref> In February 2019, Campaign For Tobacco Free Kids and Netnografica LLC published the results of a two-year investigation into how the big tobacco companies, including [[Philip Morris International|Philip Morris]], [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International|Japan Tobacco]], and [[Imperial Brands]] used social media influencers to promote their products online. <ref>[https://www.dazeddigital.com/life-culture/article/43290/1/big-tobacco-smoking-industry-young-people-social-media-influencers-instagram How the tobacco industry targets young people with social media influencers], ''Dazed & Confused'', 13 February 2019, Accessed 7 May 2019 </ref>
  
In Indonesia, the "You Decide" campaign for Marlboro is featured on billboards, including on the popular tourist island of Bali. The billboards pose the question “What’s next to discover? You decide” and feature trendy young models. The new ads follow Philip Morris’ recent launch of a new cigarette brand in Indonesia, called Philip Morris Bold. The brand launch included large billboards and television ads. <ref name="CFTFK_PMI"> Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids website, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press-releases/2019_06_19_pmi_indonesia_israel Philip Morris Claims It Wants a Smoke-Free Future, So Why Is It Aggressively Marketing Cigarettes from Israel to Indonesia?], 18 June 2019, Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref>
+
The company’s youth-oriented marketing efforts in recent years include: <ref> Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/what-we-do/industry-watch/pmi-foundation/bad-acts THE PHILIP MORRIS-FUNDED FOUNDATION FOR A SMOKE-FREE WORLD], Accessed 18 September 2018 </ref>
  
In Israel, Philip Morris responded to increased taxes on cigarettes by slashing prices on Marlboro cigarettes and launching the “You Decide” marketing campaign. Advertisements for "Music Limited Edition" Marlboros feature three cigarette packs designed to look like boom box speakers with the tagline "What’s your sound? You decide." Subsequent ads featured the slogan "Sound up. Price down." {{r|CFTFK_PMI|}}
+
*'''A new global campaign found to target youth:''' In 2011, Philip Morris launched a new global marketing campaign for its best-selling Marlboro cigarettes, called “Be Marlboro,” that used themes and images appealing to youth. With the slogan “Don’t be a Maybe. Be Marlboro,” the campaign’s ads featured young people partying, falling in love, playing music and engaging in risky behavior. The campaign expanded to more than 60 countries despite being banned by German authorities for targeting youth. <ref>Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press-releases/2014_03_12_target, Press Release], March 2014, Accessed 28 September 2018</ref>
  
In June 2019, Japan's Consumer Affairs Agency ordered Philip Morris Japan to take action over alleged false advertising for discounts on IQOS smoking devices. The practice violated the law against misleading representations, ordering Philip Morris Japan to take steps to prevent any similar issues from happening in the future. <ref>[https://www.nippon.com/en/news/yjj2019062101304/philip-morris-japan-gets-govt-order-over-false-iqos-ads.html Philip Morris Japan Gets Govt Order over False IQOS Ads], ''Nippon.com'', 12 June 2019, Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref>
+
*'''Introducing and marketing new flavored cigarettes that attract kids:''' Philip Morris has introduced and promoted new flavored cigarettes in countries across the globe, products which have been banned in the United States precisely because they have been found to attract youth and other new smokers. Research conducted in five Latin American countries found that flavored cigarettes – including Marlboro and other Philip Morris brands – were observed at over two-thirds of retail locations visited. Examples of Philip Morris brands using menthol and other flavor descriptors include Marlboro Fusion Blast, Marlboro Double Fusion, Chesterfield Fresh Capsule, Marlboro Ice Blast and Marlboro Blue Ice. The introduction of new Marlboro brands that appeal to youth isn’t limited to Latin American. Philip Morris also touts the introduction of brands such as Marlboro Double Ice and Marlboro Touch Slim as “innovations delivering strong growth” in countries such as Turkey and the UAE. <ref> Institute for Global Tobacco Control, [https://www.globaltobaccocontrol.org/resources/technical-report-flavored-cigarettes-point-sale-latin-america Technical Report on Flavored Cigarettes at the Point-of-Sale in Latin America: Availability and Marketing around Primary and Secondary Schools in Five Countries], Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; June 2017, Accessed 14 September 2018</ref>
  
The Japanese arm of Philip Morris International Inc. distributed brochures at convenience stores nationwide between September 2015 and May 2018 saying special discounts were being offered on IQOS products for limited periods.
+
*'''Marketing near schools:''' In its Code of Conduct, Philip Morris International promises not to market tobacco products to minors. However, research in more than 22 countries found cigarettes are being sold and promoted near schools, exposing children on a daily basis.<ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/09/how-children-around-the-world-are-exposed-to-cigarette-advertising How children around the world are exposed to cigarette advertising], ''The Guardian'', March 2018, Accessed 12 September 2018</ref> Previous research has found that advertising and promotions for Marlboro and other Philip Morris brands were prominently visible around primary (elementary) and secondary schools. This research has been conducted in several African countries, Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries. <ref>ATCA website, http://atca-africa.org/en/big-tobacco-tiny-targets-tobacco-industry-targets-schools-in-africa AFRICA : BIG TOBACCO TARGETS SCHOOLS, Accessed 30 September 2018</ref> <ref>Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance, [https://seatca.org/dmdocuments/Indonesia_Press%20release_Outside%20School%20Gates_15%20Jun%202015.pdf Press release New Report Shows Extensive Cigarette Advertising Near Schools in Five Cities] June 2015, Accessed September 2018</ref>  
During the 2019 World Economic Forum gathering in Davos, Wall Street Journal supported a twitter Q&A with Marian Salzman, Senior Vice President Global Communications at Phillip Morris International. <ref> Twitter, [https://twitter.com/mariansalzman/status/1088007584857186304 Wall Street Journal], 23 January 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
 
  “You can have all kinds of playbooks and legal guidelines but at the end of the day it comes down to how you engage with people. It’s important that we understand some people are really against cigarettes but they still love people who smoke. So we need to hear that and incorporate it into real time messaging and real-time conversation on Twitter.” Marian Salzman, Senior Vice President Global Communications, Phillip Morris International <ref> [https://www.holmesreport.com/latest/article/cmos-at-davos-the-challenges-of-a-communications-pivot CMOS at Davos the challenges of a communications pivot], ''The Holmes Report'', 23 January 2019, Accessed 21 April 2019 </ref>
 
  
During a fireside chat with Richard James, Philip Morris International’s VP of corporate affairs, North and Northeast Asia, Morris said:
+
*'''Violating India’s tobacco marketing laws:''' According to a July 2017 report by Reuters, Philip Morris marketed Marlboro cigarettes by placing colorful ads at kiosks and handing out free cigarettes at parties frequented by young adults, in apparent violation of India’s tobacco control laws. <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/pmi-india/ PART 2 Philip Morris takes aim at young people in India, and health officials are fuming], ''Reuters'', July 2017, Accessed 16 September 2018 </ref>
  "These days it is very difficult to separate the corporate brand from the individual product. People will see through anything that isn’t genuine. So what became very important for us was to commit to the conversation about a smoke-free future, and share our aspiration and company vision. This naturally led to consumers, who were smokers, being interested in the new types of products that would help them." <ref>[https://www.marketing-interactive.com/philip-morris-international-how-pr-works-for-a-brand-that-cannot-be-marketed/ Philip Morris International How PR works for a brand that cannot be marketed], ''Marketing Interactive'', November 2018, Accessed 12 December 2018 </ref>
 
  
  "In a heavily-regulated environment you have some help from lawyers, so a lot of your message comes from guidelines. But the gutsy part is deciding how far you are going to push it. We’ve re-entered civilised society, but the one thing that we can’t change is that – whether we sell cigarettes or somebody else does – people are going to buy cigarettes." Marian Salzman, Senior Vice President Global Communications, Phillip Morris International. <ref> [https://www.holmesreport.com/latest/article/cmos-at-davos-the-challenges-of-a-communications-pivot CMOS at Davos the challenges of a communications pivot], ''The Holmes Report'', 23 January 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref>
+
Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids investigation into over 100 social media campaigns by Philip Morris International, [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International]] and [[Imperial Brands]] revealed tobacco companies pay social media influencers on platforms like Instagram, Facebook and Twitter to advertise their products. <ref>Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press-releases/2018_08_27_ftc PRESS RELEASE New Investigation Exposes How Tobacco Companies Market Cigarettes on Social Media in the U.S. and Around the World], August 2018, Accessed 17 October 2018 </ref>
  
{{#ev:youtube|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRX30KkHIv0|300|right|Overview of the company's engagement at the 2019 World Economic Forum gathering in Davos.|frame}}
+
Response from Philip Morris International:
 +
  "Philip Morris International does not market or sell any tobacco or nicotine-containing products in the United States. We agree that youth should not have access to or use tobacco or nicotine in any form. PMI’s products are only for, and our marketing and sales activities are tailored to, adult smokers, in compliance with applicable laws in countries outside of the U.S.  None of our international activities are directed toward U.S. consumers or youth. <ref> [http://www.cbs8.com/story/39420380/how-big-tobacco-is-using-social-media-to-lure-teens How Big Tobacco is using social media to lure teens], ''CBS 8'', 6 November 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
  
Sampoerna (a Phillip Morris International subsidiary in Indonesia) held the Expo 2018 Sampoerna Entrepreneur Training Center in Denpasar, Bali, in December 2018 to help SMEs respond to disruptive conditions in the digital era to open opportunities while expanding the marketing range of their products. <ref> [https://photos.google.com/share/AF1QipPdkD4nXhQga_DHgtBXaBSxZlXcxjTX5V6pUgBH4D8B1YBzzDyvSWA8w7e7jOIV8w?key=V2k3aTNycWhoekNhajRDek9MMWg1OFFGaFdiMEp3 Dukung Transformasi Digital UMKM SAmpoerna Komit Bakal Gelar Pameran & Pelatihan Tahunan], Rakyat Merdeka, 15 January 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref>
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For a list of youth-related marketing click [[Marketing to Kids|<strong>here</strong>]].
  
Philip Morris International Duty Free launched a 2014 limited-edition pack edition at Doha International airport to celebrate the 2014 Chinese New Year of the Horse. <ref> [https://www.dfnionline.com/latest-news/retail/philip-morris-launches-marlboro-limited-edition-pack-in-qatar-27-03-2014/ Philip Morris launches Marlboro limited-edition pack in Qatar], ''DFNI Frontier'', 27 March 2017, Accessed 11 December 2018 </ref>
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===Marketing to Target Groups===
  
In Japan, Philip Morris International is shifting a large majority of its 1,000-employee sales force to target elderly smokers (Japan’s largest demographic that’s more price sensitive and less responsive to social media) with direct appeals, discounts and money-back guarantees. <ref>[https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-09-25/philip-morris-hits-streets-to-pitch-older-smokers-new-devices Philip Morris Hits Streets to Sell Old Smokers New Devices], ''Bloomberg'', 26 September 2019, Accessed 17 January 2019 </ref>
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Philip Morris International and its affiliated organisations (Juul, Altria) use the following marketing campaigns and partnerships to promote its heated cigarettes (novel and emerging nicotine and tobacco products):
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*Unsmoke Your World,
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*Smoke Free World /Future
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*Hold My Light,
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*Mission Winnow (Formula 1)
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* #ItsTime
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*PMI Science
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*Foundation For a Smoke-Free World<ref>GGTC website, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://ggtc-bucket.s3-ap-southeast-1.amazonaws.com/uploads/2021-05-27/21-59-03-008933/Cessation%20V6.pdf?utm_source=BenchmarkEmail&utm_campaign=31_May_Special_Edition_Final&utm_medium=email HOW THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY UNDERMINES CESSATION], p.4, May 2021, Accessed 12 July 2021</ref>
  
In July 2018, the UK Government threatened to take Philip Morris International to court unless it stops illegally targeting UK consumers with tobacco adverts for "healthier" tobacco products from shops around the UK. <ref>[https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/07/18/government-orders-phillip-morris-stop-advertising-healthier/ Government orders Phillip Morris to stop advertising "healthier" tobacco products or face legal action], ''The Telegraph'', 18 July 2018, Accessed 12 January 2019 </ref>
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Philip Morris introduced a new interactive laboratory called "THE SMOKE-FREE WORLD" in Eurovea Square in Bratislava, Slovakia,next to a popular shopping centre<ref>Touch It, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://touchit.sk/vyskusajte-si-virtualnu-realitu-nazivo-efekt-je-dokonaly-a-zazit-sa-da-uplne-zadarmo/344042 Vyskúšajte si virtuálnu realitu naživo. Efekt je dokonalý a zažiť sa dá úplne zadarmo (aktualizované o VIDEO)], 24 May 2021, Accessed 11 July 2021</ref> , as well as Aupark shopping centre in Kosice. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.startitup.sk/jedinecne-laboratorium-v-kosiciach-priblizuje-viziu-sveta-bez-dymu/Jedinečné laboratórium v Košiciach približuje víziu sveta bez dymu], ''Startitup'', 9 September 2021, Accessed 20 September 2021</ref>
  
Philip Morris International, through its parent company Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Corp Inc., organises Bright Leaf Award for journalists in the Philippines, specifically for agriculture journalism from which the comapny gets its stock of feature stories and photos on tobacco growing to promote in the media all year round. <ref> Tobacco Watch, [https://tobaccowatch.seatca.org/index.php/2018/08/04/philippines-philip-morris-enlists-doa-journalists-for-bright-leaf-award/ Philippines: Philip Morris enlists DOA, journalists for Bright Leaf Award], 4 August 2018, Accessed 12 January 2019 </ref>
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Philip Morris International is purposefully targeting Māori population in New Zealand in its bid to sell IQOS. The company is running marketing campaigns places with high Māori and Pasifika populations. <ref> [https://www.newsroom.co.nz/2019/07/11/677880/big-tobacco-targeting-maori-with-e-cigarettes Big tobacco targeting Maori with e-cigarettes], ''Newsroom'', 11 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref> In India, a report by Reuters revealed that several cigarette companies in India, including Philip Morris and ITC, have ignored the legal norms which prohibits putting up of advertisements of cigarettes, even on kiosks. <ref> [https://www.india.com/news/india/marlboro-cigarettes-target-indian-youth-with-veiled-advertising-strategies-irks-health-department-report-2330401/ Marlboro cigarettes target Indian youth with veiled advertising strategies irks health department report], ''Reuters'', 19 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
  
Philip Morris International presented IQOS World exhibition at Milan Design Week in 2019. <ref>[https://en.antaranews.com/news/123274/philip-morris-international-presents-iqos-world-revealed-by-alex-chinneck-at-milan-design-week-2019 Philip Morris International presents IQOS World revealed by Alex Chinneck at Milan Design Week 2019], ''Antara News'', 4 April 2019, Accessed 30 April 2019 </ref>
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In Japan, Philip Morris International is shifting a large majority of its 1,000-employee sales force to target elderly smokers (Japan’s largest demographic that’s more price sensitive and less responsive to social media) with direct appeals, discounts and money-back guarantees. <ref>[https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-09-25/philip-morris-hits-streets-to-pitch-older-smokers-new-devices Philip Morris Hits Streets to Sell Old Smokers New Devices], ''Bloomberg'', 26 September 2019, Accessed 17 January 2019 </ref>
  
===Sponsorship===
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Philip Morris International has told Irish retailers it made a “mistake” by running an advertisement in the trade press here for a “menthol blend”, Marlboro Bright, which it introduced in Ireland after discontinuing its old menthol cigarettes, Marlboro Green. Menthol cigarettes were banned across the European Union and in the UK on May 20th 2020. <ref>[https://www.irishtimes.com/business/retail-and-services/philip-morris-says-irish-ad-for-menthol-blend-cigarettes-a-mistake-1.4282786 Philip Morris says Irish ad for ‘menthol blend’ cigarettes a ‘mistake’], ''Irish Times'', 19 June 2020, Accessed 20 July 2020</ref>
  
Belgian authorities are investigating whether a sponsorship deal between British American Tobacco (BAT) and media outlet Politico violated existing tobacco advertising laws. <ref> [https://euobserver.com/health/145285 Belgium prepares probe into Politico tobacco sponsorship], ''EU Observer'', 27 June 2019, Accessed 9 July 2019 </ref>
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According to research by Suzan Burton & Becky Freeman from The University of Sydney, former employees from British American Tobacco Australia and Philip Morris Internationl described incentives programmes whereby top performing retailers were taken on all-expenses paid vacations and experiences.<ref>Christina Watts , Suzan Burton & Becky Freeman (2020): [https://web.archive.org/web/*/https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/17441692.2020.1824005?needAccess=true ‘The last line of marketing’: Covert tobacco marketing tactics as revealed by former tobacco industry employees, Global Public Health], DOI: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1824005, 18 September 2020, p.7, Accessed 8 December 2020 </ref>
  
The Centre for Substance Use Research has taken money from Philip Morris International and [[British American Tobacco]]. <ref> [https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/17539768.critic-of-snp-government-anti-drugs-strategy-in-row-over-tobacco-industry-funding/ Critic SNP government anti drugs strategy in row over tobacco industry funding], ''Herald Scotland'', 31 March 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
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===Sponsorship===
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PMI launched a public education initiative entitled United to Safeguard America from Illegal Trade to "combat black market trade" in the United States. Supported by a coalition of national and state private and public sector partners, the campaign will provide local officials, law enforcement, and thought leaders with information and training programs to help tackle illegal trade and raise public awareness of the depth of the problem as well as the severe consequences inflicted on states and municipalities by black market profiteers. The campaign will run through 2021 in eight states facing critical illegal trade issues: Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Texas. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://finance.yahoo.com/news/philip-morris-international-launches-campaign-134500676.html Philip Morris International Launches New Campaign to Combat Black Market Trade], ''Yahoo! Finance'', 8 June 2021, Accessed 11 July 2021 </ref>
  
In 2015, Phillip Morris International has removed its name as a sponsor of the Rock Nation concert in Bangladesh, following media and NGO pressure. <ref>LinkedIn Mehedi Hasan, [https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/pmi-removes-its-name-sponsor-mehedi-hasan/?forceNoSplash=true PMI removes its name as sponsor], 15 March 2015, Accessed January 2019 </ref>
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In 2021, British American Tobacco is a new commercial partner of Tomorrowland festival in Belgium. <ref>DH Net, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.dhnet.be/dernieres-depeches/belga/plus-de-vente-de-cigarettes-a-tomorrowland-mais-bien-d-alternatives-comme-le-vapotage-6094cb559978e2169874dcd3 Plus de vente de cigarettes à Tomorrowland mais bien d'"alternatives" comme le vapotage], 7 May 2021, Accessed 10 July 2021</ref> In 2021, British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International invested GBP £1 billion in promoting its products on TikTok. <ref> Expose Tobacco,[https://web.archive.org/web/20210513050857/https://exposetobacco.org/wp-content/uploads/Women-and-the-Tobacco-Industry-4.6.2021.pdf Women and the Tobacco Industry], 8 March 2021, Accessed 13 May 2021</ref>
  
According to Financial Times, Philip Morris International has agreed a GBP 5 million deal with Vice where the online medium will produce sponsored content endorsing e-cigarettes. <ref> [https://www.ft.com/content/9015a516-4b1d-11e9-8b7f-d49067e0f50d Marlboro maker teams up with Vice for vaping push], ''Financial Times'', April 2019, Accessed April 2019 (paywall) </ref>
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Philip Morris International has launched a global staff-led fundraising campaign to support projects helping those most affected by the earthquake that struck central Croatia on December 29, 2020.<ref> Public, [https://web.archive.org/save/http://www.publicnow.com/view/809AC01C07BD4F946B52A9A36D395C21D0A4FDC6 Projects With A Heart Launches Appeal To Help Stricken Communities After Croatian Earthquake], 20 January 2021, Accessed 26 February 2021 </ref> Philip Morris International has co-sponsored a paper led by Cornell University professor Dr. Karan Girotra on the role transformation plays in ensuring businesses prosper in a world demanding sustainable solutions. <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.pmi.com/media-center/news/transforming-your-business-white-paper-news/ Transforming your business: A toolkit for leaders to embrace essential change], 12 January 2021, Accessed 26 February 2021</ref>
  
===Global Campaigns===
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Mexican artist Alfredo Blásquez collaborated with IQOS to create a facility that would represent "the change of smokers who have switched to a smoke-free product that does not generate ash like conventional cigarettes." The artist created an exhibition with thousands of lighters recovered from different places for the benefit of the environment. Customers of the IQOS stores also took part in the work by leaving their lighters as a symbol of "their change"." <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210209191925/https://www.sdpnoticias.com/nacional/happening-del-artista-alfredo-blasquez-llama-a-cambiar-el-habito-de-fumar-este-2021.html Happening del artista Alfredo Blásquez llama a cambiar el hábito de fumar este 2021], ''SDP Noticias'', 9 February 2021, Accessed 26 February 2021 </ref>
  
Philip Morris International VP of strategic and scientific communications Moira Gilchrist was in a session at the Palais called ‘Facts, Fads and a Fugee: Creating a Smoke Free Future’, alongside rapper Wyclef Jean and Bonin Ventures founder Bonin Bough. The company also hosted its NGO events and had its own programme of activity in its own space, including open mic sessions with guests (see video below). The tobacco company paid for Bough and actor Rose McGowan to attend. <ref> [https://www.prweek.com/article/1588397/cannes-slammed-placing-philip-morris-good-track-runs-cigarette-campaigns-indonesia Cannes slammed for placing Philip Morris on 'Good Track' while it runs cigarette campaigns in Indonedia], ''PR Week'', 21 June 2019, Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref>
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ASSIST, an NGO working for the development of poor and marginalised communities in rural areas in India, has collaborated with Philip Morris International on 'Prevention of Child labour and Rural Development in tobacco growing villages of Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka' project, focused on school infrastructure development to promote school attendance, income generation activities and building awareness. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://in.news.yahoo.com/assist-partners-philip-morris-international-054152147.html ASSIST partners with Philip Morris International; committing towards elimination of child labour], ''Yahoo'', 20 November 2020, Accessed 26 February 2021 </ref>
  
In April 2019, Philip Morris International launched “[https://www.unsmokeyourworld.com/ways-to-unsmoke/ The Year of Unsmoke]” marketing campaign. The campaign was branded as “an urgent call to action to smokers, nonsmokers, regulators and agents of change across the world to drive a better future for the world’s 1.1 billion smokers and their families, loved ones and communities.<ref> [https://www.apnews.com/Business%20Wire/732e8686e6924fa0928ad54fc28378e2 Philip Morris International Enters the ‘Year of Unsmoke’—Calls on All Those Who Can Empower a Smoke-Free Future], ''AP News'', 8 April 2019, Accessed 21 April 2019 </ref>
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Sampoerna, in collaboration with Waste4Change, launched a "research trial program" on cigarette butts recycling which will last until January 2021. Carrying the hashtag named #PuntungItuSampah, the program is one of Sampoerna's commitment to the concept of circular economy and zero-waste to landfills in Indonesia. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20201223100005/https://republika.co.id/berita//qlsefh396/sampoerna-dan-waste4change-daur-ulang-puntung-sampah Sampoerna dan Waste4Change Daur Ulang Puntung Sampah], Republika, 23 December 2020, Accessed 14 January 2021</ref>
  
In February 2019, Campaign For Tobacco Free Kids and Netnografica LLC published the results of a two-year investigation into how the big tobacco companies, including [[Philip Morris International|Philip Morris]], [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International|Japan Tobacco]], and [[Imperial Brands]] used social media influencers to promote their products online. <ref>[https://www.dazeddigital.com/life-culture/article/43290/1/big-tobacco-smoking-industry-young-people-social-media-influencers-instagram How the tobacco industry targets young people with social media influencers], ''Dazed & Confused'', 13 February 2019, Accessed 7 May 2019 </ref>  
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In July 2020, Philip Morris International launched an advertising campaign designed to raise awareness of the trade in fraudulent personal protective equipment amid the COVID-19 crisis, and spotlight the resources available to combat the trade in these goods. The campaign ran for two months across the U.S. and was supported by other private industry brand integrity leaders and organizations dedicated to fighting illicit trade, including: U.S. Chamber of Commerce, United States Council for International Business (USCIB) , Transnational Alliance to Combat Illicit Trade (TRACIT), Merck & Co., Inc., Procter & Gamble Company, Tommy Hilfiger, Under Armour, SAS, Anti-Counterfeiting and Product Protection Center at Michigan State University and Luna Global Networks. <ref>PMI website, [https://www.pmi.com/media-center/press-releases/press-details/?newsId=22641 Philip Morris International Launches COVID-19 Anti-Fraudulent Goods Campaign], 14 July 2020, Accessed 5 October 2020</ref>
  
In October 2018, Philip Morris International hired Aaron Sherinian as VP of global communications transformation, reporting to Marian Salzman — who became global communications SVP earlier this year. <ref> [https://www.holmesreport.com/latest/article/philip-morris-hires-aaron-sherinian-as-agency-revamp-takes-shape Philip Morris Hires Aaron Sherinian As Agency Revamp Takes Shape], The Holmes Report, October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref> {{#ev:youtube|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebWtPthdqcw|300|right|Marian Salzman, Senior Vice President, Communications at the 2018 Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity. Salzman spoke to the company’s goals for being at the event and setting up the PMI Science Beach.|frame}}
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Philip Morris International sponsored Djakarta Warehouse Project, one of Asia’s biggest dance music festivals. Throughout the festival there were bright Marlboro signs over bars and benches where people sat smoking. There was a Marlboro “Discover Room” with interactive red, blue and yellow booths, echoing cigarette branding, and an arcade game. The festival’s shops sold only Marlboro-branded cigarettes and the company employed attractive saleswomen to roam around promoting the products. <ref name="PMI_FEST">[https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/stories/2020-02-24/the-unsmoke-screen-the-truth-behind-pmis-cigarette-free-future The ‘Unsmoke’ screen: the truth behind PMI’s cigarette-free future], ''The Bureau of Investigative Journalism'', 24 February 2020, Accessed 14 April 2020 </ref> The company has also sponsored Iqos-branded parties for Playboy magazine in Germany and Cosmopolitan magazine in Russia. {{r|PMI_FEST|}} Philip Morris (Pakistan) partnered with Network of Organizations Working with Persons with Disabilities for an anti-littering campaign. The campaign aims to provide economic empowerment for persons with disabilities by providing retro-fitted vehicles for them to operate as they collect litter from different areas to recycle waste, as well as help clean up Pakistan. <ref>[https://www.biztoday.news/2020/08/19/philip-morris-handing-over-vehicles-to-persons-with-disabilities/ Philip Morris handing over vehicles to persons with disabilities], ''Biz Today'', 19 August 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020</ref>
  
Philip Morris International has launched an initiative called “[https://www.missionwinnow.com Mission Winnow]” to get around tobacco marketing ban laws and to endorse innovation "driving towards a better future". <ref name="PMI_f1"> Philip Morris International, [https://www.missionwinnow.com Mission Winnow], November 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref>. It is tied closely with Formula 1 racing, but there are numerous images of Philip Morris International scientists, and the [https://www.missionwinnow.com website] openly mentions Philip Morris International and its "goal" of reducing smoking. {{r|PMI_f1}} Philip Morris International claimed “Mission Winnow” fully complied with tobacco advertising laws, despite an investigation being launched in Australia over the matter. <ref>[https://uk.motor1.com/news/304692/ferrari-mission-winnow-investigation-australia/ Ferrari Mission Winnow investigation in Australia], ''Motor 1'', 10 February 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref> Ferrari was later forced to remove the branding from its vehicles and racing uniforms. The team's official race entry was listed as "Scuderia Ferrari Mission Winnow". <ref>[ https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/ferrari-drops-big-tobacco-branding-from-name-ahead-of-grand-prix-20190305-p511s1.html Ferrari drops big tobacco branding from name ahead of Grand Prix], ''The Age'', 5 March 2019,  Accessed April 2019 </ref> Philip Morris International has both actively and subliminally advertised its Marlboro brand in F1 since the 1970’s. Several host countries gradually implemented advertising bans, however at many of these venues, Marlboro-backed teams and drivers raced with chevrons, and chevron-themed track signage were also visible. <ref>Hefler M, [https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/28/3/241.citation-tools Worldwide news and comment], ''Tobacco Control'', 2019;28:241-244, Accessed 5 July 2019</ref>
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Philip Morris International has been sponsoring Israeli medical students with 14,000 shekels (about USD4,000) in exchange for a year of intensive exposure to corporate informational materials, conferences and lectures about tobacco. <ref> [https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-philip-morris-offers-israeli-medical-students-grants-for-attending-lectures-1.8221762 Philip Morris Offers Israeli Medical Students Grants for Attending Lectures], ''Haaretz'', 4 December 2019, Accessed 24 January 2020 </ref>
  
In October 2018, Philip Morris International set up a “PMI Science Engagement Hub” during the World Health Organization’s tobacco treaty conference in Geneva to explain the company’s transformation from maker of Marlboro cigarettes to maker of Marlboro HeatSticks, and watch a machine compare cigarette smoke and heatstick vapor. New York Times reported that a group of people stood outside the convention hall handing out a report titled N''o Fire, No Smoke: Global State of Tobacco Harm Reduction''. It was written by [https://kachange.eu/ Knowledge-Action-Change], an organization that receives funding from the Philip Morris Foundation for a Smoke-Free World. Its message was 'There is “a third way beyond quit or die.' <ref> [https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/07/health/tobacco-e-cigarettes-treaty.html Flashy Science Hub and Vaping Parties Fail to Win Friends at W.H.O. Tobacco Talks], ''The New York Times'', October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref> In 2019, PMI Science released new data that claims that “clinical studies provide human data on the use and acceptance of our smoke-free products as well as their potential to reduce exposure to harmful chemicals and the potential to reduce the risk of smoking-related diseases as compared to continued smoking." <ref> PMI Science website, [https://pmiscienceusa.com/scientific-approach-research-methodology/clinical-assessment-trials-research/ Clinical Assessment], 19 February 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref>
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According to a ten-month study by tobacco researchers at Stanford University, Philip Morris International markets through IQOS throughout Europe - in lounges at mountainside resorts in the Pyrenees, fashionable neighborhoods of Rome. Philip Morris International has partnered with "IQOS friendly" bars and restaurants - closed to cigarettes but open to IQOS. Such promotions are part of a wide-ranging "normalization" strategy by Philip Morris to scrub its image as a purveyor of cancer-causing cigarettes and present its new smoking alternatives as youthful, upscale lifestyle products. At Germany's Bambi Awards for the media industry in November 2019, celebrities posed for red-carpet photos against a backdrop of IQOS. Instagram postings for Be Like Me, a Romanian marketing agency, show young women posing with the IQOS device in recent months, often wearing robe-like uniforms in malls. The Instagram account for RBT Group, a staffing agency in Russia that markets IQOS, similarly shows photos of attractive young women in front of IQOS signs or posing with other "coaches." Be Like Me and RBT Group could not be reached for comment. Philip Morris worked with British sculptor Alex Chinneck on a dramatic installation at the 2019 Milan Design Week. The work depicted the facade of an old, two-story building being unzipped like a pair of jeans - meant to signify the IQOS "notion of opening the future," the sculptor said in an interview with FAD magazine. The company also worked with distinguished industrial designer Karim Rashid to create an installation at the previous year's Milan Design Week. In an interview with website fashionrepublik.com, Rashid described his installation, showing two faces meeting one another, as similar to the IQOS, which he called "an intimate device that speaks to forward-thinking and original expression. At a launch party for IQOS in Albania in 2019, a performer in an elaborate white sequined dress did an interpretive dance on stage with an IQOS, while another performer attached to wires performed acrobatic moves in the air while playing a violin. <ref>[https://www.devdiscourse.com/article/international/884048-insight-inside-the-philip-morris-campaign-to-normalize-a-tobacco-device INSIGHT-Inside the Philip Morris campaign to 'normalize' a tobacco device], ''Devdiscourse'', 21 February 2020, Accessed 6 March 2020 </ref>
  
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Malaysian publisher, The Edge and Philip Morris Malaysia hosted a champagne brunch with a special viewing of the tobacco company’s photography exhibition "Unsmoke: Through The Lens of Malaysians". The exhibition featured the works of three prominent Malaysian photographers — David Lok, SC Shekar and Nadirah Zakariya — who each had three weeks to interpret what the term “Unsmoke” means to them, with the guidance and curation of gallerist, Lim Wei-Ling of Wei-Ling Gallery. <ref> [https://www.optionstheedge.com/topic/events/photo-exhibition-philip-morris-malaysia-x-edge-imagines-better-world-without-smoke Photo exhibition by Philip Morris Malaysia x The Edge imagines a better world without smoke], ''Options Edge'', 6 December 2019, Accessed 24 January 2020 </ref>
  
{{#ev:youtube|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nco9D4FT8fE|300|right|In October 2018, Philip Morris launched "Hold my light" with a campaign website and a film in which a woman navigates a maze of lasers to relinquish her cigarette lighter to a group of friends.|frame}}
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Refurbishments of the Swiss Vaud Fine Arts Museum were partly financed by private sponsors, including Philip Morris International, which gave CHF390,000 (USD 397,500) towards construction work and CHF 50,222 for running costs. <ref>[https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/culture/tobacco-culture_should-swiss-museums-and-festivals-accept-tobacco-industry-money-/45445906 Should Swiss museums and festivals accept tobacco industry money?], ''Swiss Info'', 19 December 2019, Accessed 24 January 2020 </ref>
According to Marketing Week, Philip Morris is launching a new campaign to encourage smokers to give up cigarettes. The [https://smokefreefuture.co.uk/hold-my-light/ Hold My Light campaign] aims to persuade smokers to go smoke-free by encouraging friends and family to offer rewards in the first 30 days of quitting. The campaign suggests four ways to give up cigarettes, including going cold turkey, using nicotine patches, vaping and using heated tobacco products. <ref> [https://www.marketingweek.com/2018/10/22/everything-that-matters-this-morning-22-october-2018/ Netflix, Philip Morris, Ryanair: Everything that matters this morning], ''Marketing Week'', October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref> The campaign was labelled as PR stunt by a number of British anti-smoking charities, including Cancer Research UK and Action on Smoking and Health. <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-pmi-advert/philip-morris-stop-smoking-campaign-attacked-as-pr-stunt-idUSKCN1MW1EP Philip Morris stop-smoking campaign attacked as PR stunt], ''Reuters'', October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref> In an interview with Campaign, Corporate Affairs Director for Philip Morris International Mark MacGregor said:
 
  "It’s very naïve of people to think we’re just going to shut down our business... And if we’re not going to do that, it feels like the action we’ve taken is proof [of our intentions], whether people want to believe it or not." <ref> [https://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/philip-morris-exec-defends-quit-smoking-campaign/1498461 Philip Morris exec defends quit-smoking campaign], ''Campaign'', November 2018, Accessed 19 November 2018 </ref>  
 
  
A profile on Philip Morris International in a German daily Spiegel revealed Philip Morris International is hoping governmental requirements for its new products will be loosened. For instance, they'd like to be rid of the compulsory "smoking kills" banners that adorn their every advertisement. And once they've completed all the necessary studies and long-term investigations, they would like the regulatory watchdogs to allow the tobacco companies to advertise their new products as "safer." <ref>[http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/philip-morris-hypocrisy-on-new-healthy-image-a-1229690.html Big Tobacco's Dubious Health-Conscious Makeover], ''Spiegel'', September 2018, Accessed 20 September 2018 </ref>
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===Brand-washing===
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In a global marketing and public relations campaign, Philip Morris International announced its intention to "stop selling cigarettes" within the next decade. The development is part of Philip Morris International's reinvention as it abandons traditional tobacco products. <ref> [http://web.archive.org/save/https://www.npr.org/2021/07/26/1020571339/marlboro-maker-ceo-says-the-company-plans-to-stop-selling-smokes-in-the-u-k Marlboro Maker CEO Says The Company Plans To Stop Selling Smokes In The U.K.], ''NPR'', 26 July 2021, Accessed 2 August 2021 </ref>
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In 2021, Philip Morris International was nominated for a SABRE Award in two categories: Executive Leadership and Superior Achievement in Reputation Management. <ref>Provoke Media, [https://web.archive.org/web/20210421065550/https://www.provokemedia.com/events-awards/sabre-awards/sabre-awards-north-america/2021-finalists 2021 SABRE Awards North America Finalists], Accessed 21 April 2021</ref>
  
An investigative report published by Reuters in July 2017 revealed a large-scale secret campaign by Philip Morris International to undermine the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/pmi-who-fctc/ Inside Philip Morris’ campaign to subvert the global anti-smoking treaty], ''Reuters'', July 2017, Accessed September 2018</ref>, depicting “a company that has focused its vast global resources on bringing to heel the world’s tobacco control treaty.<ref> Campaign For Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/images/content/PMI_bad_acts.pdf The Facts about Philip Morris International:Company Is Cause of the Tobacco Problem, Not the Solution], November 2017, Accessed 30 September 2018 </ref>
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Expose Tobacco’s 2020 report on Philip Morris International’s brand-washing found ‘the company’s “smoke free” vision, and highly funded PR campaigns are a calculated corporate strategy to renormalise the company so it can re-exert its declining influence over policy.’ <ref name="PMI_EXPOSE20"> Philip Morris International, [https://exposetobacco.org/wp-content/uploads/STOP_Report_Addiction-At-Any-Cost.pdf  ADDICTION AT ANY COST Philip Morris International Uncovered], p. 28, November 2018, Accessed 30 November 2018 </ref> Philip Morris International collaborated with Oh My Look, a Ukrainian dress rental service, offering 30 instagram users a chance to win a certificate for a free dress rental if they register on IQOS’s official website in Ukraine and follows its Instagram account. <ref>[https://www.kyivpost.com/Ukraine-politics/investigation-iqos-uses-instagram-influencers-to-target-youth-in-ukraine.html Investigation: IQOS uses Instagram influencers to target youth in Ukraine], Kyiv Post, 25 February 2020, Accessed 16 March 2020 </ref>  
  
In July 2017, The Guardian published a series of stories which detailed large tobacco companies, including Philip Morris International, have fought tobacco control efforts throughout Africa. <ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/12/big-tobacco-dirty-war-africa-market Threats, bullying, lawsuits: tobacco industry's dirty war for the African market], ''The Guardian'', July 2017, Accessed 30 September 2018</ref>
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There have been launches for Iqos products all around the world, some headlined by Jason Derulo or Jamiroquai. <ref name="PMI_FEST”> [https://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/stories/2020-02-24/the-unsmoke-screen-the-truth-behind-pmis-cigarette-free-future  The ‘Unsmoke’ screen: the truth behind PMI’s cigarette-free future], ''The Bureau Investigates Journal'', 24 February 2020, Accessed 15 May 2020</REF> In countries including Japan, Romania, Ukraine, Vietnam, Russia, Czechia, and Spain, PMI has created its own cafés and lounges, where menus pair coffees with particular flavours of Heatstick. It has launched a global network of “Iqos-friendly spaces”; bars, hotels, restaurants or public areas like beaches where people can freely puff on their Iqos.  {{r|PMI_FEST|}}
  
To help mark NHS 70th birthday, Philip Morris International wanted to mark this anniversary by helping "the NHS staff quit smoking." MPs and advocacy groups branded this campaign as "entirely inappropriate". <ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/jul/19/worlds-biggest-tobacco-firm-under-fire-over-disgraceful-pr-stunt World's biggest tobacco firm under fire over 'disgraceful' PR stunt], ''The Guardian'', 19 July 2018, Accessed January 2019 </ref>
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In January 2020, Philip Morris International announced that it has won the 2020 BIG Innovation Award in the "Organization" category. The BIG Innovation Awards, presented by the Business Intelligence Group, recognize organizations, products and people who bring new ideas to life. Organizations from across the globe submitted their recent innovations for consideration, and nominations were judged by a select group of business leaders and executives. <ref>[https://finance.yahoo.com/news/philip-morris-international-wins-2020-150500922.html Philip Morris International Wins 2020 BIG Innovation Award], ''Yahoo'', 22 January 2020, Accessed 28 January 2020 </ref>
  “If we stop selling cigarettes, someone else is going to sell them because people buy them… So I don’t think that will have any impact on public health or the health of people.” Andre Calantzopoulos Phillip Morris CEO <ref>[https://www.simplemost.com/marlboros-parent-company-stop-making-cigarettes/ Marlboro parent company stop making cigarettes], ''Simple Most'', 19 February 2019, Accessed 30 April 2019 </ref>
 
  
===Corporate Social Responsibility===
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On 08 April 2019, Philip Morris International launched “The Year of Unsmoke”— a call for action to “smokers, nonsmokers, regulators and agents of change… who can empower a smoke-free future”, with a key message: “If you don’t smoke, don’t start. If you smoke, quit. If you don’t quit, change” <ref>Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/unsmokeyourworld/the-year-of-unsmoke UNSMOKE: The Year of Unsmoke],  Accessed 19 February 2020 </ref>
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After launching the campaign at Wall Street’s Future of Everything annual event, <ref>Mathers, A., Hawkins, B., & Lee, K.,[https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/full/10.2105/AJPH.2018.304813 Transnational Tobacco Companies and New Nicotine Delivery Systems], ''American Journal of Public Health'', 109(2), 227-235.  Accessed 19 February 2020 </ref> Philip Morris International is promoting its Unsmoke campaign on a paid microsite created by The Wall Street Journal's advertising department. The company promotes it's "smoke-free messaging" through a series of posts, including: <ref> The Wall Street Journal, [https://partners.wsj.com/pmi/itstime/itstime-to-unsmoke/?fbclid=IwAR0YexQW-Q58tY3ZD0sKtlJ6irJPxm46My21dPO761wFs-I78XYR9sumLtA #ItsTime to Unsmoke], Accessed 28 January 2020 </ref>
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*Collaboration Is Needed to End Smoking
 +
*Science’s Role in Tobacco Harm Reduction
 +
*ItsTime: People Deserve Access to Better Information
 +
*ItsTime to Unsmoke
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*Inclusion and Diversity Strategies Aren’t About Ticking Boxes—Here’s Why
 +
*Let’s Talk: Disruptive Innovation and Science Can Create a Smoke-free World
  
Guardian reported Philip Morris International, [[British American Tobacco]] and [[Imperial Brands]] are allegedly buying tobacco leaves that could have been picked by exploited African migrants working in Italy. <ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/may/31/i-had-pain-all-over-my-body-italys-tainted-tobacco-industry 'I had pain all over my body': Italy’s tainted tobacco industry], ''The Guardian'', 31 May 2019, Acessed 13 June 2019 </ref>  
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The 2019 World Health Organization Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic:
 +
  "PMI refers to both its HTPs and ENDS as “smoke-free products”. This strategy creates confusion between the product categories and promotes the industry claim that emissions from HTPs and e-cigarettes are not “smoke” (though emissions from HTPs contain many of the toxic chemicals found in cigarette smoke). The campaign also fails to acknowledge that the impact of shortand long-term use is largely unknown, and that current science does not support claims of reduced risk of health harms from HTPs. PMI avoids saying the products are less harmful, but instead states that it “believes” these products “while not risk free … have the potential to present less risk of harm than continued smoking”." <ref> World Health Organization, [https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/326043/9789241516204-eng.pdf?ua=1 WHO REPORT ON THE GLOBAL TOBACCO EPIDEMIC, 2019 Offer help to quit tobacco use], p. 63, 2019, Accessed 11 March 2020 </ref>
  
In a disclosure to CDP, a nonprofit that asks companies about their environmental impact, Phillip Morris International said it could save USD10 million from heavy rains and USD 1 million per year from warmer temperatures. The report submission was reported as “Phillip Morris International has identified a way to profit from climate change. <ref> [https://www.businessinsider.com.au/philip-morris-thinks-climate-change-is-good-for-tobacco-2019-1?r=US&IR=T PM thinks climate change is good for tobacco], ''Business Insider'', 21 January 2019, Accessed 20 April 2019 </ref>
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Philip Morris International organized an “Unsmoke Your Mind” lounge on the fringes of Davos, moderated by Sameena Ali Khan of ITV and also featured Bozoma Saint John, Chief Marketing Officer of William Morris Endeavor, and Jacek Olczak, Chief Operating Officer of Philip Morris International.<ref> PMI website, [https://www.pmi.com/our-initiatives/unsmoke-your-mind/jimmy-wales-criticizes-regulations-that-prevent-truth-in-marketing?utm_source=TWITTER&utm_medium=social&utm_content=Organic&utm_campaign=_Global_HQ_HQ_evergreen_20200215 Jimmy Wales criticizes regulations that prevent truth in marketing], January 2020, Accessed 16 March 2020 </ref> According to Expose Tobacco, Philip Morris International was not an invited guest at the World Economic Forum, but nevertheless; held a side event with The Wall Street Journal and sponsored the Davos Playbook, Politico’s daily newsletter distributed to attendees. It used its sponsorship to promote its “smoke-free” transformation to the world’s powerful decision-makers. {{r|PMI_EXPOSE20|p=37}} In September 2020, Unsmoke Canada announced Unsmoke Canada Cleanups, a new grant-giving program to provide groups with funding opportunities that support litter cleanup projects across Canada. The goal is to help everyone work together to clean up Canada's great outdoors.<ref>[https://finance.yahoo.com/news/unsmoke-canada-fund-litter-cleanups-110000177.html IIROC Trade Resumption - BTB.UN], ''Yahoo! Finance'', 10 September 2020, 17 November 2020</ref>
  
In September 2017, Philip Morris International announced a pledge of USD 80 million dollars a year for 12 years beginning in 2018 for the creation of its latest “independent” research effort, the [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/ Foundation for a Smoke-Free World]. <ref>[http://fortune.com/2017/09/13/philip-morris-billion-smoke-free-foundation/ Philip Morris Pledges Almost $1 Billion to Anti-Smoking Fight], ''Fortune'', September 2017, Accessed September 2018</ref> According to the Foundation's website, it has four focus areas and works to reduce health impacts and deaths from smoking, with the ultimate goal of eliminating smoking worldwide.<ref> Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/our-areas-focus Our areas of focus], Accessed September 2018</ref> In October 2018, a statement by a number of anti-tobacco organisations and universities called for the [https://www.conradchallenge.org/conrad-foundation/ Conrad Foundation] to severe its ties with the Philip Morris International-funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World on an initiative working with high school students in the United States. <ref> Cision, [https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/conrad-foundation-should-sever-ties-with-philip-morris-funded-foundation-for-a-smoke-free-world-300736373.html Conrad Foundation Should Sever Ties with Philip Morris-Funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World], October 2018, Accessed October 2018</ref> The Foundation published a report that encourages tobacco company ‘rebranding’ and offers examples of how other companies, including IBM, GE or Ford, redefined and in some cases (like Ford) rebranded themselves to secure future customers. <ref name="PMI_FSFW"> Foundation For A Smoke-Free World, [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/sites/default/files/fsfw_business_transformation_white_paper.pdf?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_content=nov282018_kol&utm_campaign=always_on_social BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION An Analysis of Case Studies Relevant to Achieving a Smoke-Free World], November 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref> The report included the following call to action:
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Some experts fear that if the company’s narrative is taken at face value Philip Morris International will continue to sell billions of cigarettes worldwide while promoting itself as “part of the solution” to smoking. It could lure a new generation into addiction with its new products, whose long-term health risks are unknown, and discourage people who might have quit altogether from doing so. <ref>[https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/pmi-smoke-free-investigation_uk_5e53c70dc5b6a4525dbe266a The Truth Behind Philip Morris International's Smoke-Free Future], ''The Huffington Post'', 24 February 2020, Accessed 6 March 2020 </ref>
  "We invite stakeholders in the business and financial communities, researchers, NGOs, regulators, smokers, and tobacco farmers to join the discussion of the transformational possibilities available to the tobacco industry. We believe the case studies presented in this report will help frame and promote the conversation." {{r|PMI_FSFW}}
 
  
India’s health ministry revised its guidelines for ‘Tobacco-free Educational Institutions’ to ensure that schools and students should not accept awards from tobacco manufacturers after a team from Delhi Public School in R.K. Puram participated in a competition sponsored by the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World. <ref>[https://thewire.in/business/philip-morris-tobacco-smoking-school-children Exclusive: A Tobacco Company-Funded Foundation Is Using a Contest to Target School Children], ''The Wire'', 12 June 2019, Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref>  
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South African daily newspaper Business Day recently published an article sponsored by Philip Morris SA, “Unsmoke SA: it’s time for a new conversation to reduce smoking rates” and BusinessTech also published a similar article. In both PMSA advertises and promotes the IQOS. Heated tobacco products, including IQOS device, are tobacco products and should not be advertised or promoted in terms of the Tobacco Control Act of 1993. This act introduced a ban on all advertising, marketing and sponsorship of tobacco products. <ref>[https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/opinion/2020-02-12-philip-morris-in-breach-of-sas-tobacco-law-with-sponsored-campaign/ Philip Morris in breach of SA’s tobacco law with sponsored campaign], ''Business Live'', 2 December 2020, Accessed 19 February 2020 </ref>  
  
Complete profile on the Philip Morris International-funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World can be found [http://www.tobaccotactics.org/index.php?title=Foundation_for_a_Smoke-Free_World here].
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Philip Morris International made it onto the Forbes list of the World’s Most Valuable Brands in 2019. <ref>[https://rare.us/rare-news/history/marlboro-forbes/ Why Marlboro is One of Forbes World’s Most Valuable Brands], ''Rare'', 4 November 2019, Accessed 26 November 2019 </ref> In April 2019, Philip Morris International launched “[https://www.unsmokeyourworld.com/ways-to-unsmoke/ The Year of Unsmoke]” marketing campaign. The campaign was branded as “an urgent call to action to smokers, nonsmokers, regulators and agents of change across the world to drive a better future for the world’s 1.1 billion smokers and their families, loved ones and communities.” <ref> [https://www.apnews.com/Business%20Wire/732e8686e6924fa0928ad54fc28378e2 Philip Morris International Enters the ‘Year of Unsmoke’—Calls on All Those Who Can Empower a Smoke-Free Future], ''AP News'', 8 April 2019, Accessed 24 April 2019 </ref>
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  "In a heavily-regulated environment you have some help from lawyers, so a lot of your message comes from guidelines. But the gutsy part is deciding how far you are going to push it. We’ve re-entered civilised society, but the one thing that we can’t change is that – whether we sell cigarettes or somebody else does – people are going to buy cigarettes." Marian Salzman, Senior Vice President Global Communications, Phillip Morris International  <ref> [https://www.holmesreport.com/latest/article/cmos-at-davos-the-challenges-of-a-communications-pivot CMOS at Davos the challenges of a communications pivot], ''The Holmes Report'', 23 January 2019, Accessed 21 April 2019 </ref>
  
In 2016, Philip Morris International launched Philip Morris International [https://www.pmi-impact.com/ IMPACT], a private fund aiming to support third-party projects dedicated to fighting illegal trade and related crimes such as corruption, organized criminal networks and money laundering which continues to be a major risk to their business. The organization has pledged to donate USD 100 million to fund individual projects. <ref> Philip Morris International Impact, [https://www.pmi-impact.com/explore/about] About, Accessed September 2018</ref> The World Health Organization released an official statement:
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Philip Morris International has launched an initiative called “[https://www.missionwinnow.com Mission Winnow]” to get around tobacco marketing ban laws and to endorse innovation "driving towards a better future. It is tied closely with Formula 1 racing, but there are numerous images of Philip Morris International scientists, and the [https://www.missionwinnow.com website] openly mentions Philip Morris International and its "goal" of reducing smoking. {{r|PMI_f1}} Philip Morris International claimed “Mission Winnow” fully complied with tobacco advertising laws, despite an investigation being launched in Australia over the matter. <ref>[https://uk.motor1.com/news/304692/ferrari-mission-winnow-investigation-australia/ Ferrari Mission Winnow investigation in Australia], ''Motor 1'', 10 February 2019, Accessed 21 April 2019 </ref> Ferrari was later forced to remove the branding from its vehicles and racing uniforms. The team's official race entry was listed as "Scuderia Ferrari Mission Winnow". <ref>[https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/ferrari-drops-big-tobacco-branding-from-name-ahead-of-grand-prix-20190305-p511s1.html Ferrari drops big tobacco branding from name ahead of Grand Prix], ''The Age'', 5 March 2019,  Accessed 21 April 2019 </ref> Philip Morris International has both actively and subliminally advertised its Marlboro brand in F1 since the 1970’s. Several host countries gradually implemented advertising bans, however at many of these venues, Marlboro-backed teams and drivers raced with chevrons, and chevron-themed track signage were also visible. <ref>Hefler M, [https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/28/3/241.citation-tools Worldwide news and comment], ''Tobacco Control'', 2019, pp.241-244, Accessed 5 July 2019</ref> Tobacco company branding and logos will be banned entirely from the Melbourne Grand Prix to close a loophole that was exploited by cigarette giant Philip Morris and Ferrari. <ref> [https://www.theage.com.au/national/victoria/new-laws-to-stamp-out-sneaky-tobacco-advertising-20190827-p52lbi.html New laws to stamp out 'sneaky' tobacco advertising], ''The Age'', 27 August 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref> As of February 2020, Ferrari is facing legal action spearheaded by non-profit consumer rights organisation Codacons. The group claims that the new SF1000 F1 car features illegal advertising. The dispute concerns the Mission Winnow logos, which reference an initiative with the backing of Philip Morris International. Though it’s claimed there is no direct advertising of tobacco, Codacons says the logos are a get-around of regulations. <ref>[https://www.motoringresearch.com/car-news/ferrari-legal-action-advertising-f1-car/ Ferrari could face legal action over advertising on new F1 car], ''Motoring Research'', 14 February 2020, Accessed 18 February 2020 </ref> Philip Morris International allegedly spent USD 625 million on Ferrari's sponsorship. <ref>[https://www.formule.cz/clanek/41284-ktery-sponzor-byl-za-poslednich-10-let-nejstedrejsi Kdo byl za posledních deset let nejštědřejší?], ''Formule'', 6 May 2020, Accessed 21 May 2020 </ref> European Union health officials suspect the PMI-sponsored Ferrari Formula 1 team is indirectly advertising Marlboro cigarettes on its cars. Experts believe that the red-white-black barcode depicted on Ferrari cars resembles a pack of Marlboro cigarettes. European law prohibits all advertising of cigarettes during sporting events. <ref>Avtobizon,[https://web.archive.org/save/https://avtobizon.ru/news/news_23383.html Команду Ferrari F1 обвинили в косвенной рекламе Marlboro], 29 April 2021, Accessed 10 May 2021</ref> Ferrari is facing legal action over claims that the new SF1000 F1 car features illegal advertising. The dispute concerns the Mission Winnow logos. Though it’s claimed there is no direct advertising of tobacco, public health advocates claim the logos are a get-around of regulations. <ref> [https://www.motoringresearch.com/car-news/ferrari-legal-action-advertising-f1-car/ Ferrari could face legal action over advertising on new F1 car], ''Motoring Research'', 14 February 2020, Accessed 16 March 2020 </ref> In March 2021, a large Mission Winnow logo on the Ferrari car’s engine cover appeared in a bright green hue. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210312113342/https:/www.racefans.net/2021/03/11/ferrari-sponsor-explains-surprise-change-to-bright-green-logo-01/ Ferrari sponsor explains surprise change to bright green logo], ''Racefans'', 11 March 2021, Accessed 18 May 2021 </ref> In February 2021, Scuderia Fans reported that the 2021 Formula 1 seasons may be last season of collaboration between Ferrari and Philip Morris. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210218150930/https:/scuderiafans.com/ferrari-likely-to-end-partnership-with-philip-morris-from-2022/ Ferrari likely to end partnership with Philip Morris from 2022], ''Scuderia Fans'', 18 February 2021, Accessed 18 May 2021 </ref>
  
    "... Strengthening implementation of the WHO FCTC for all tobacco products remains the most effective approach to tobacco control. Policies such as tobacco taxes, graphic warning labels, comprehensive bans on advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and offering help to quit tobacco use have been proven to reduce demand for tobacco products. These policies focus not just on helping existing users to quit, but on preventing initiation."<ref> World Health Organization, [http://www.who.int/news-room/detail/28-09-2017-who-statement-on-philip-morris-funded-foundation-for-a-smoke-free-world WHO Statement on Philip Morris funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World], September 2017, Accessed September 2018. </ref>
 
  
List of organisations funded under PMI Impact can be found on the [https://ggtc.world/track-and-trace-systems-tobacco-industry-links/ Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control website] and [[PMI CSR|here]].
 
  
In 2014, Philip Morris International announced that it will begin buying U.S.-grown tobacco exclusively through third-party leaf supply companies. This policy required the world’s largest tobacco leaf suppliers – Alliance One International and Universal Corporation – to implement Philip Morris International’s detailed child labor policy on all U.S. farms from which they purchase tobacco. <ref> Human Rights Watch, [https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/11/05/us-tobacco-giants-move-could-reduce-child-labor US: Tobacco Giant’s Move Could Reduce Child Labor], 5 November 2015, Accessed December 2018 </ref>
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According to Marketing Week, Philip Morris is launching a new campaign to encourage smokers to give up cigarettes. The [https://smokefreefuture.co.uk/hold-my-light/ Hold My Light campaign] aims to persuade smokers to go smoke-free by encouraging friends and family to offer rewards in the first 30 days of quitting. The campaign suggests four ways to give up cigarettes, including going cold turkey, using nicotine patches, vaping and using heated tobacco products. <ref> [https://www.marketingweek.com/2018/10/22/everything-that-matters-this-morning-22-october-2018/ Netflix, Philip Morris, Ryanair: Everything that matters this morning], ''Marketing Week'', October 2018, Accessed 31 October 2018 </ref> The campaign was labelled as PR stunt by a number of British anti-smoking charities, including Cancer Research UK and Action on Smoking and Health. <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-pmi-advert/philip-morris-stop-smoking-campaign-attacked-as-pr-stunt-idUSKCN1MW1EP Philip Morris stop-smoking campaign attacked as PR stunt], ''Reuters'', October 2018, Accessed 31October 2018 </ref> In an interview with Campaign, Corporate Affairs Director for Philip Morris International Mark MacGregor said:
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  "It’s very naïve of people to think we’re just going to shut down our business... And if we’re not going to do that, it feels like the action we’ve taken is proof [of our intentions], whether people want to believe it or not." <ref> [https://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/philip-morris-exec-defends-quit-smoking-campaign/1498461 Philip Morris exec defends quit-smoking campaign], ''Campaign'', November 2018, Accessed 30 November 2018 </ref>  
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{{#ev:youtube|https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nco9D4FT8fE|300|right|In October 2018, Philip Morris launched "Hold my light" with a campaign website and a film in which a woman navigates a maze of lasers to relinquish her cigarette lighter to a group of friends.|frame}}
  
Philip Morris International was recognised as a Global Top Employer for the second year in a row. The certification for 2018 from Top Employer Institute was awarded to PMI teams in 44 countries. <ref>[https://www.ibtimes.com.au/philip-morris-international-again-recognised-global-top-employer-1565108 Philip Morris International again recognised as a Global Top Employer], ''International Business Times'', 19 February 2018, Accessed December 2018 </ref>
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To help mark NHS 70th birthday, Philip Morris International wanted to mark this anniversary by helping "the NHS staff quit smoking." MPs and advocacy groups branded this campaign as "entirely inappropriate". <ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/business/2018/jul/19/worlds-biggest-tobacco-firm-under-fire-over-disgraceful-pr-stunt World's biggest tobacco firm under fire over 'disgraceful' PR stunt], ''The Guardian'', 19 July 2018, Accessed 31 January 2019 </ref>
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  “If we stop selling cigarettes, someone else is going to sell them because people buy them… So I don’t think that will have any impact on public health or the health of people.” Andre Calantzopoulos Phillip Morris CEO <ref>[https://www.simplemost.com/marlboros-parent-company-stop-making-cigarettes/ Marlboro parent company stop making cigarettes], ''Simple Most'', 19 February 2019, Accessed 30 April 2019 </ref>
  
===Lobbying===
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In a disclosure to CDP, a nonprofit that asks companies about their environmental impact, Phillip Morris International said it could save USD10 million from heavy rains and USD 1 million per year from warmer temperatures. The report submission was reported as “Phillip Morris International  has identified a way to profit from climate change. ” <ref> [https://www.businessinsider.com.au/philip-morris-thinks-climate-change-is-good-for-tobacco-2019-1?r=US&IR=T PM thinks climate change is good for tobacco], ''Business Insider'', 21 January 2019, Accessed 20 April 2019 </ref> In 2014, Philip Morris International announced that it will begin buying U.S.-grown tobacco exclusively through third-party leaf supply companies. This policy required the world’s largest tobacco leaf suppliers – Alliance One International and Universal Corporation – to implement Philip Morris International’s detailed child labor policy on all U.S. farms from which they purchase tobacco. <ref> Human Rights Watch, [https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/11/05/us-tobacco-giants-move-could-reduce-child-labor US: Tobacco Giant’s Move Could Reduce Child Labor], 5 November 2015, Accessed 19 December 2018 </ref> In the 2021 Integrated report, Philip Morris reported 3.5 percent prevalence of child labor among contracted farms supplying tobacco to the company. <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://pmidotcom3-prd.s3.amazonaws.com/docs/default-source/pmi-sustainability/pmi-integrated-report-2020.pdf?sfvrsn=f17a78b7_6Integrated Report 2020], p.2,  May 2021, Accessed 14 July 2021</ref> In 2020, Philip Morris International decided to end its ECLT Foundation Board membership, as of 2022.  <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://pmidotcom3-prd.s3.amazonaws.com/docs/default-source/pmi-sustainability/pmi-integrated-report-2020.pdf?sfvrsn=f17a78b7_6Integrated Report 2020], p.81,  May 2021, Accessed 14 July 2021</ref>
  
An Australian political party The Nationals received AUD 56,500 from tobacco giant Phillip Morris International, while the Liberal Democrats were given almost AUD 100,000. <ref> [https://www.braidwoodtimes.com.au/story/5881456/aussie-politics-a-billion-dollar-business/?cs=9397 Aussie politics a billion dollar business], ''Braidwood Times'', 1 February 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
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During a fireside chat with Richard James, Philip Morris International’s VP of corporate affairs, North and Northeast Asia, Morris said:
 +
  "These days it is very difficult to separate the corporate brand from the individual product. People will see through anything that isn’t genuine. So what became very important for us was to commit to the conversation about a smoke-free future, and share our aspiration and company vision. This naturally led to consumers, who were smokers, being interested in the new types of products that would help them." <ref>[https://www.marketing-interactive.com/philip-morris-international-how-pr-works-for-a-brand-that-cannot-be-marketed/ Philip Morris International How PR works for a brand that cannot be marketed], ''Marketing Interactive'', November 2018, Accessed 23 December 2018 </ref>
  
Philip Morris International is pushing for Hong Kong health authorities re-consider their intention to to ban e-cigarettes and other new tobacco products. Philip Morris International used the latest findings from the Royal College of Physicians in the U.K. The report reads: "“E-cigarettes are not a gateway to smoking – in the UK, use of e-cigarettes is limited almost entirely to those who are already using, or have used, tobacco... " <ref> [http://harbourtimes.com/2019/02/01/philip-morris-keen-less-harmful-alternatives-smoking-hk-not-much/ PM keen less harmful alternatives smoking hk not much], ''Harbour Times'', 2 February 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
 
  
Corporate Europe Observatory published an analysis of leaked documents outlining the lobbying strategy of tobacco giant Philip Morris International , highlighting top 10 Members of European Parliament with the strongest relationship with Philip Morris. The  we highlighted a top-10 of MEPs with the strongest relations to Philip Morris, including Othmar Karas, Christofer Fjellner and Wim van de Camp<ref> Corporate Europe Observatory, [https://corporateeurope.org/power-lobbies/2014/06/mediapart-exposes-unhealthy-liaisons-between-french-mep-and-tobacco-industry Mediapart exposes unhealthy liaisons between French MEP and the tobacco industry], June 2014, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
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Expose Tobacco, Addition at Any Cost report:
 +
  “Though PMI says IQOS is only for existing adult smokers, the company has marketed it in a way that appeals to youth and young adults, including using attractive young females as young as 19 to promote IQOS products in Romania and on social media. {{r|PMI_EXPOSE20|p=28}}
  
Philip Morris South Africa previously contributed to the [http://www.freemarketfoundation.com/ Free Market Foundation], a South African libertarian think-tank. <ref>Free Market Foundation, [https://web.archive.org/web/20130315120814/http://www.freemarketfoundation.com:80/about/members Members], Accessed October 2018 </ref>
+
A report by the Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control states that ehe self-professed “socially responsible” activity in the form of Unsmoke campaign is targeted to the public, not just to stockholders, and complements the aggressive marketing of the tobacco company’s new products. <ref name=“GGTC_1”> GGTC, [https://web.archive.org/web/20200619043816/https://ggtc.world/dmdocuments/Dangers%20of%20Unsmoke%20Campaign_Final%20Version.pdf DANGERS OF THE “UNSMOKE” CAMPAIGN Frequently Asked Questions], August 2019, p.2, Accessed 8 December 2020 </ref>
  
Philip Morris International is behind #futurosinhumo [https://www.futurosinhumo.com/ website], requesting the Mexican public to sign a petition that would allow the sale of reduced-risk products in the country. <ref> Futuro Sin Humo, [https://www.futurosinhumo.com/#unete COMPLETA LOS SIGUIENTES CAMPOS], Accessed October 2018 </ref> As of November 2018, the same website is now available in Colombia, promoting e-cigarrettes and IQOS as “healthier” choices. <ref name="PMI_FSH"> Futuro Sin Humo, [http://sinhumo.com.co/inicio CONOCE EL MOVIMIENTO], Accessed December 2018 </ref>
+
The report further highlights that:
 +
  “the messaging involved in Unsmoke could mislead the public into thinking that tobacco or nicotine devices are just as safe as quitting. Because color is a visual marketing element that communicates through associated meanings, Unsmoke’s pointed use of yellow and black, coupled with its name, is designed to resemble a safety warning, similar to most health warnings — to dissuade consumers from combustible cigarettes and steer them to “safer” alternatives… Recent studies indicate that IQOS are no less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, PMI’s own studies suggest that the introduction of IQOS could lead to adolescent and young non-users initiating tobacco use with IQOS. “ {{r|GGTC_1|p=4}}
  
In October 2018, Guardian reported that Philip Morris International has been lobbying the members of Australian federal government to overturn Australia’s ban on vaping, but its efforts remain hidden from the public as Philip Morris International was not required to register as lobbyist because it uses own staff rather than third-party consultants. Guardian Australia reported Philip Morris International has been seeking meetings with Coalition MPs as part of its bid to overturn the vaping ban. Some within government have refused to meet with the company. Philip Morris International has also placed prominent ads on page three of both the Australian and the Australian Financial Review, calling for staff to help it achieve a “future without cigarettes” and a “smoke-free Australia”. Tobacco advertisements are banned under Australian law, but Philip Morris appears to have relied on an exemption allowing job ads.<ref> [https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/oct/03/philip-morris-lobbying-on-e-cigarettes-hidden-from-australian-public Philip Morris lobbying on e-cigarettes hidden from Australian public], ''The Guardian'', October 2018, Accessed October 2018</ref>
+
====Bangladesh====
 +
Bangladesh’s largest non-government organization Brac returned the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World fund worth USD 64,115. <ref> [https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2019/08/01/brac-praised-for-returning-fund-from-multinational-tobacco-company Brac praised for returning fund from multinational tobacco company], ''Dhaka Tribune'', 2 August 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
  
According to Politico, among the lobbyists on the EU Transparency Register, representing Philip Morris International is lobby firm [https://www.pantarhei-advisors.com/en/home-en/ Pantarhei Advisors Europe]. <ref>[https://www.politico.eu/article/tobacco-lobbyists-demand-say-in-eu-debate-on-tobacco-lobbying-european-parliament-european-ombudsman-emily-oreilly/ Tobacco lobbyists demand say in EU debate on … tobacco lobbying], ''Politico'', April 2016, Accessed September 2018</ref> Think-tanks from multiple countries received funding from [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International]] and Philip Morris International, alongside governments as they argued against tobacco controls (James to enter individual countries). <ref> [https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jan/23/tobacco-industry-free-market-thinktanks-cigarette-controls Tobacco industry free market thinktanks cigarette controls], ''The Guardian'', 23 January 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>  Philip Morris has previously donated to one of Australia’s most prominent right-wing think tank, the Institute of Public Affairs (IPA). <ref> [https://thenewdaily.com.au/news/national/2018/07/24/ipa-membership-donors/ Institute of Public Affairs growing but think tank remains tight-lipped about donors], ''The New Daily'', July 2018, Accessed October 2018</ref>
+
In 2015, Phillip Morris International has removed its name as a sponsor of the Rock Nation concert in Bangladesh, following media and NGO pressure. <ref>LinkedIn Mehedi Hasan, [https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/pmi-removes-its-name-sponsor-mehedi-hasan/?forceNoSplash=true PMI removes its name as sponsor], 15 March 2015, Accessed 8 January 2019 </ref>
  
[http://www.tobaccotactics.org Tobacco Tactics] reported a number of tobacco companies, including British American Tobacco were a donors to the [https://www.atlasnetwork.org/ Atlas Network] in 2015 and 2016. According to the organisation's Wiki "internal tobacco industry documents show the Atlas Network has had a longstanding funding relationship with the tobacco industry." <ref> Tobacco Tactics, [http://www.tobaccotactics.org/index.php?title=Atlas_Network#cite_note-six-8 Atlas Network], Accessed November 2018 </ref>. Full profile on the organisation can be found [http://www.tobaccotactics.org/index.php?title=Atlas_Network#cite_note-six-8 here].
+
====France====
 +
At the 2019 Cannes Lions International Festival of Creativity, Philip Morris International talked about heated tobacco products and tried to potentially recruit “the best creative brains and the most robust platforms to join us on this mission”. Philip Morris International had its own program of events, its own large “beach house” set up, and paid for celebrity speakers including actor and activist Rose McGowan and rapper Wyclef Jean. The festival organizers were criticized when Philip Morris International also spoke in the festival’s Good Track stream (reserved for those organizations that will make the world a better place) with reputable organizations such as Greenpeace and United Nation's Women. {{r|PMI_EXPOSE20|p=37}}
  
In 2013, Philip Morris International spent EUR 5.25 million to lobby members of European Parliament. The amount was the highest for any company in the European Union that year. <ref>[https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2014/10/03/why-did-philip-morris-spend-more-than-anyone-else-lobbying-the-e-u/#771e59a92963 Why Did Philip Morris Spend More Than Anyone Else Lobbying The E.U.?], ''Forbes'', October 2014, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
+
====Indonesia====
 +
In 2015, the government of Indonesia signed a memorandum of understanding with Philip Morris International worth USD 1.9 billion for investments in factory expansion from 2016 to 2020. <ref>Expose Tobacco website, [https://exposetobacco.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Crooked-9-STOP.pdf Crooked 9], p.39, September 2019, Accessed 12 February 2020 </ref>
  
<ref name="PMI_TB">[http://ec.europa.eu/transparencyregister/public/consultation/displaylobbyist.do?id=51925911965-76 Philip Morris International Inc.], Accessed 2 May 2019 </ref>
+
====Israel====
 +
PMI has been sponsoring selected Israeli medical students with 14,000 shekels (about USD 4,000) in exchange for a year of intensive exposure to corporate informational materials and conferences and lectures. <ref>[https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-philip-morris-offers-israeli-medical-students-grants-for-attending-lectures-1.8221762 Philip Morris Offers Israeli Medical Students Grants for Attending Lectures ], ''Haaret'', 4 December 2019, Accessed 15 December 2019</ref>
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
====Italy====
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Name
+
Philip Morris International presented IQOS World exhibition at Milan Design Week in 2019. <ref>[https://en.antaranews.com/news/123274/philip-morris-international-presents-iqos-world-revealed-by-alex-chinneck-at-milan-design-week-2019 Philip Morris International presents IQOS World revealed by Alex Chinneck at Milan Design Week 2019], ''Antara News'', 4 April 2019, Accessed 30 April 2019 </ref>
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Contract Status
 
! style="font-weight:bold;width=20%" |Start Date
 
! style="font-weight:bold;width=30%" |End Date
 
|-
 
|Kacper Chmielewski {{r|PMI_TB}}
 
|Active
 
|20 June 2019
 
|30 June 2020
 
|-
 
|Kristof Doms {{r|PMI_TB}}
 
|Active
 
|21 June 2019
 
|30 June 2020
 
|-
 
|Mario Mueller {{r|PMI_TB}}
 
|Active
 
|20 June 2019
 
|30 June 2020
 
|-
 
|Stefano Santi {{r|PMI_TB}}
 
|Active
 
|19 June 2019
 
|30 June 2020
 
|-
 
|Mauro Scotto D' Abusco{{r|PMI_TB}}
 
|Active
 
|20 June 2019
 
|30 June 2020
 
|-
 
|Bert Van Gossum{{r|PMI_TB}}
 
|Active
 
|20 June 2019
 
|30 June 2020
 
|-
 
|Robert Wassenaar{{r|PMI_TB}}
 
|Active
 
|20 June 2019
 
|30 June 2020
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
===Research and Development===
+
====Japan====
 +
At the 2019 g20 meeting in Osaka, Philip Morris International took out a two-page spread in The Japan Times broadsheet telling the world’s leaders that the company had changed and that dialogue was necessary. {{r|PMI_EXPOSE20|p=37}}
  
PMI Science offers a 2-year Postdoctoral fellowship at the company's R&D Center in Neuchâtel, Switzerland for researchers from a variety of backgrounds. <ref> [https://www.pmiscience.com/discover/research/pmi-postdoc-program?utm_source=Global PMI Postdoctoral Fellowship Program], Philip Morris International website, Accessed May 2019 </ref>
+
====Jordan====
 +
The Jordanian Ministry of Education and the Naour municipality (Amman) accepted sponsorship from Philip Morris to fix ten schools buildings and provide school bags for students in 25 schools. <ref name="GTII_2019"> Mary Asunta, [http://www.globaltobaccoindex.org Global Tobacco Industry Interference Index 2019], Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control, September 2019, p.14, Accessed 16 July 2020</ref>
  
Sky News reported that IQOS would potentially reduce the number of noxious chemicals by 95 per cent, though research is still being carried out. <ref>[https://www.standard.co.uk/news/world/world-leading-cigarette-manufacturer-phillip-morris-international-begins-to-phase-out-cigs-in-favour-a4033981.html World leading cigarette manufacturer Philip Morris International begins to phase out cigs in favour], ''Standard'', 5 January 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref> Swiss Sonntags Zeitung reported that highly dangerous toxins escape from the filters of IQOS when polymer filters are heated to 100 degrees Celsius. <ref> [https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/vaping_swiss-lab-finds-toxic-substances-in-philip-morris-e-cigarette/44878990 Swiss lab finds toxic substances in Philip Morris e-cigarette], ''Swissinfo.com'', 7 April 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019. </ref>
+
====Malaysia====
 +
The Edge and Philip Morris Malaysia hosted a champagne brunch to treat a select group of clients and associates to a special viewing of the tobacco company’s groundbreaking photography exhibition “Unsmoke: Through The Lens of Malaysians”. The exhibition featured the works of three prominent Malaysian photographers — David Lok, SC Shekar and Nadirah Zakariya — who each had three weeks to interpret what the term “unsmoke” meant to them, with the guidance and curation of Lim Wei-Ling of Wei-Ling Gallery. <ref>[https://www.optionstheedge.com/topic/events/photo-exhibition-philip-morris-malaysia-x-edge-imagines-better-world-without-smoke Photo exhibition by Philip Morris Malaysia x The Edge imagines a better world without smoke], ''Options Edge'', 6 December 2019, Accessed 15 December 2019</ref>
  
Phillip Morris International published a white paper: 'Public Health —Much Harder than Rocket Science'. The document was presented to guests at the 2019 World Economic Forum gathering in Davos, Switzerland. The paper called for a ‘collaborative approach to ending smoking.<ref> [https://www.pmi.com/media-center/news/davos-2019---rethinking-solutions-for-public-health News], Philip Morris International website, 22 January 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
+
====Philippines====
 +
Philip Morris International, through its parent company Philip Morris Fortune Tobacco Corp Inc., organises Bright Leaf Award for journalists in the Philippines, specifically for agriculture journalism from which the company gets its stock of feature stories and photos on tobacco growing to promote in the media all year round. <ref> Tobacco Watch, [https://tobaccowatch.seatca.org/index.php/2018/08/04/philippines-philip-morris-enlists-doa-journalists-for-bright-leaf-award/ Philippines: Philip Morris enlists DOA, journalists for Bright Leaf Award], 4 August 2018, Accessed 8 January 2019 </ref>
  
According to Guardian, Philip Morris International funded  and supervised research on the impact of plain packaging in Australia and insisted on seeing it before it was published. The study was "widely disseminated in the media and used by the tobacco lobby to make the case that the health initiative had no discernible effect on smoking rates among the young in Australia, and therefore should not be introduced in the UK." <ref> [https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/feb/14/ow-over-arlboro-funded-research-that-undermined-plain-cigarette-packs Row over Marlboro-funded research that undermined plain cigarette packs], ''The Guardian'', 15 February 2015, Accessed January 2019 </ref>
+
Several Philipino editors of various national newspapers toured a manufacturing facility owned and run by PMFTC Inc, a joint-venture company between Philip Morris Philippines Manufacturing, Inc. (PMPMI) and Fortune Tobacco Corporation (FTC). <ref> [https://www.philstar.com/opinion/2020/01/29/1988578/health-and-taxes Health and taxes], ''Philstar'', 29 January 2020, Accessed 19 February 2020 </ref>
  
Philip Morris Korea Inc. strongly refuted the finding by the South Korean government that underscored health risks in the heat-not-burn cigarettes. If found guilty, the company could face punitive action. <ref> [https://pulsenews.co.kr/view.php?year=2018&no=386216 Philip Morris defends IQOS safety vs regular cigarettes], Pulse, Accessed December 2018 </ref>
+
====Romania====
 +
In Romania, IQOS Consultants are employed to work in IQOS retail outlets in shopping malls, and to promote IQOS at various events, including music festivals, exclusive parties, and events organized by Qreator,  an initiative established by  Philip Morris International to host music and fashion events in the Romanian capitol of Bucharest.{{r|PMI_EXPOSE20|p=36}}
  
Portal Chemical & Engineering News reported that representatives from [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International]], Philip Morris International, and Reynolds American attended the annual meeting of the [https://www.ascctox.org/ American Society for Cellular & Computational Toxicology] focused on non-animal toxicology testing. The website cited the ultimate goal to:
+
====Switzerland====
  "to convince officials at the U.S. Food & Drug Administration’s Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) that in vitro methods for predicting respiratory toxicology in humans are ready for prime time." <ref> [https://cen.acs.org/biological-chemistry/toxicology/Big-tobacco-embraces-vitro-toxicology/96/i43 Big tobacco embraces in vitro toxicology], ''Chemical & Engineering News'', October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref>
+
Swiss Foreign Minister Ignazio Cassis received a 1.8 million Swiss francs (USD 1.8 million) sponsoring deal with Philip Morris International to help fund Switzerland’s Expo 2020 pavilion in Dubai. <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/us-swiss-philip-morris-expo/swiss-minister-under-fire-for-tobacco-sponsorship-of-expo-pavilion-idUSKCN1UJ1T9 Swiss minister under fire for tobacco sponsorship of expo pavilion], ''Reuters'', 24 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
  
A study conducted by Philip Morris International claims that smoking IQOs resulted in a “significant reduction” in lung-tumor formation in mice compared with traditional burnt tobacco. According to Bloomberg, the company studied the effects in mice of different levels of aerosol from heated tobacco, cigarette smoke and fresh air over 18 months. <ref>[https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-11-01/philip-morris-s-iqos-device-causes-fewer-lung-tumors-in-mice Philip Morris's iQos Device Causes Fewer Lung Tumors in Mice], ''Bloomberg'', November 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
+
====United Kingdom====
 +
Public health campaigners accused Philip Morris International for what they say is an attempt to “infiltrate” decision-making on the United Kingdom's policy towards vaping and other non-combustible smoking products. A report released by the Guardian and Channel 4’s Dispatches revealed that Philip Morris International had drawn up plans for a GBP 1 billion tobacco transition fund that would provide local authorities and Public Health England with cash to persuade smokers to give up cigarettes in favour of non-combustible alternatives such as its IQOS ‘heat not burn’ tobacco product [heated cigarette]. <ref>[https://www.proactiveinvestors.co.uk/companies/news/913532/philip-morris-international-blasted-for-plans-to-infiltrate-uk-smoking-policy-913532.html Philip Morris blasted over £1bn plan to 'infiltrate' UK vaping policy], ''Proactive Investors'', 24 February 2020, Accessed 16 March 2020 </ref>
  
In 2017, Philip Morris International published 46 peer-reviewed papers in leading scientific journals. In 2017, Philip Morris International filled over 170 new patent applications. Philip Morris International currently have more than 2,900 Reduced Risk Products related patents granted worldwide and over 4,600 such patent applications pending.<ref>Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], Accessed September 2018 </ref>
+
The Centre for Substance Use Research has taken money from Philip Morris International and [[British American Tobacco]]. <ref> [https://www.heraldscotland.com/news/17539768.critic-of-snp-government-anti-drugs-strategy-in-row-over-tobacco-industry-funding/ Critic SNP government anti drugs strategy in row over tobacco industry funding], ''Herald Scotland'', 31 March 2019, Accessed 7 April 2019 </ref>
  
===Marketing to Kids===
+
====United States====
 +
Ahead of the opening of the first IQOS store in the United Stats, the company embarked on a deliberate marketing strategy, spending USD 1.29 million in fall 2019 alone to advertise the product. IQOS ads appeared exclusively in higher-end fashion and tech magazines, including GQ, Men’s Journal, Popular Science, Vogue and Wired, positioning IQOS as a premium product offering an innovative design. <ref>Truth Initiative, [https://web.archive.org/web/20201208063025/https://truthinitiative.org/sites/default/files/media/files/2020/09/IQOS-in-the-US-FINAL_0.pdf IQOS IN THE U.S. EXAMINING THE LAUNCH OF THE COUNTRY’S NEWEST ELECTRONIC TOBACCO PRODUCT], September 2020, Accessed 8 December 2020 </ref>
  
Reuters investigation has revealed that Philip Morris International used young social media influencers to promote IQS, including a 21-year-old woman in Russia. <ref>[https://mobile.reuters.com/video/2019/05/11/philip-morris-suspends-controversial-soc?videoId=548803455&videoChannel=5 Philip Morris suspends 'influencer' marketing for IQOS], ''Reuters'', 13 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>  
+
According to Financial Times, Philip Morris International has agreed a GBP 5 million deal with Vice where the online medium will produce sponsored content endorsing e-cigarettes. <ref> [https://www.ft.com/content/9015a516-4b1d-11e9-8b7f-d49067e0f50d Marlboro maker teams up with Vice for vaping push], ''Financial Times'', April 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 (paywall) </ref>
  
For a list of youth-related marketing click [[Marketing to Kids|<strong>here</strong>]].
+
The PETA International Science Consortium Ltd., Imperial Brands PLC, Altria Client Services, British American Tobacco PLC, and Philip Morris International Inc have joined together to donate USD 110,000 worth of equipment that will help to replace the use of animals in respiratory testing with more human-relevant, non-animal test methods. <ref> PETA website, [https://www.peta.org/media/news-releases/peta-international-science-group-and-tobacco-companies-donate-to-save-animals/ Media], 22 August 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref>  
  
The company’s youth-oriented marketing efforts in recent years include: <ref> Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/what-we-do/industry-watch/pmi-foundation/bad-acts THE PHILIP MORRIS-FUNDED FOUNDATION FOR A SMOKE-FREE WORLD], Accessed September 2018 </ref>
+
According to the New York Times, Philip Morris International was a silver sponsors of Competitive Enterprise Institute's gala event. <ref> [https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/10/climate/nyt-climate-newsletter-cei.html Following the Money That Undermines Climate Science], ''The New York Times'', 10 June 2019, 18 September 2019 </ref> According to TobaccoTactics, Philip Morris International also funded Consumer Choice Center's event in 2018. <ref> TobaccoTactics, [https://tobaccotactics.org/index.php?title=Consumer_Choice_Center#cite_note-faq-10 Consumer Choice Center], Accessed 18 September 2019 </ref>
  
*'''A new global campaign found to target youth:''' In 2011, Philip Morris launched a new global marketing campaign for its best-selling Marlboro cigarettes, called “Be Marlboro,” that used themes and images appealing to youth. With the slogan “Don’t be a Maybe. Be Marlboro,” the campaign’s ads featured young people partying, falling in love, playing music and engaging in risky behavior. The campaign expanded to more than 60 countries despite being banned by German authorities for targeting youth. <ref>Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press-releases/2014_03_12_target, Press Release], March 2014, Accessed September 2018</ref>
+
Philip Morris International published “The Essential Guide to the UNGA,” a document that cross-promoted the company’s Unsmoke campaign just before the 2019 United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). Philip Morris International’s CEO gave a keynote at Concordia, a high-level event that fosters partnerships between businesses, governments and U.N. agencies. During the actual UNGA, Prof. Bob Eccles, a paid PMI adviser, spoke at a Cornell Club side event on Exclusion and Engagement in Sustainable Investing. {{r|PMI_EXPOSE20|p=3}}
  
*'''Introducing and marketing new flavored cigarettes that attract kids:''' Philip Morris has introduced and promoted new flavored cigarettes in countries across the globe, products which have been banned in the United States precisely because they have been found to attract youth and other new smokers. Research conducted in five Latin American countries found that flavored cigarettes – including Marlboro and other Philip Morris brands – were observed at over two-thirds of retail locations visited. Examples of Philip Morris brands using menthol and other flavor descriptors include Marlboro Fusion Blast, Marlboro Double Fusion, Chesterfield Fresh Capsule, Marlboro Ice Blast and Marlboro Blue Ice. The introduction of new Marlboro brands that appeal to youth isn’t limited to Latin American. Philip Morris also touts the introduction of brands such as Marlboro Double Ice and Marlboro Touch Slim as “innovations delivering strong growth” in countries such as Turkey and the UAE. <ref> Institute for Global Tobacco Control, [https://www.globaltobaccocontrol.org/resources/technical-report-flavored-cigarettes-point-sale-latin-america Technical Report on Flavored Cigarettes at the Point-of-Sale in Latin America: Availability and Marketing around Primary and Secondary Schools in Five Countries], Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; June 2017, Accessed September 2018</ref>
+
====Thailand====
 +
The Thai government insists it never interfered with state agencies to favour Philip Morris Thailand by lobbying public prosecutors not to press a new charge against the company. On the fourth day of the no-confidence debate, the opposition raised the dispute between Thai agencies and tobacco company Philip Morris to grill the government. <ref>[https://www.bangkokpost.com/business/1867109/govt-denies-tobacco-deal Govt denies tobacco deal], ''Bangkok Post'', 28 February 2020, Accessed 20 March 2020 </ref>
  
*'''Marketing near schools:''' In its Code of Conduct, Philip Morris International promises not to market tobacco products to minors. However, research in more than 22 countries found cigarettes are being sold and promoted near schools, exposing children on a daily basis.<ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/mar/09/how-children-around-the-world-are-exposed-to-cigarette-advertising How children around the world are exposed to cigarette advertising], ''The Guardian'', March 2018, Accessed September 2018</ref> Previous research has found that advertising and promotions for Marlboro and other Philip Morris brands were prominently visible around primary (elementary) and secondary schools. This research has been conducted in several African countries, Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries. <ref>ATCA, http://atca-africa.org/en/big-tobacco-tiny-targets-tobacco-industry-targets-schools-in-africa AFRICA : BIG TOBACCO TARGETS SCHOOLS, Accessed September 2018</ref> <ref>Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance, [https://seatca.org/dmdocuments/Indonesia_Press%20release_Outside%20School%20Gates_15%20Jun%202015.pdf Press release New Report Shows Extensive Cigarette Advertising Near Schools in Five Cities] June 2015, Accessed September 2018</ref>  
+
===PMI Impact===
 +
In 2016, Philip Morris International launched Philip Morris International [https://www.pmi-impact.com/ IMPACT], a private fund aiming to support third-party projects dedicated to fighting illegal trade and related crimes such as corruption, organized criminal networks and money laundering which continues to be a major risk to their business. The organization has pledged to donate USD 100 million to fund individual projects. <ref> Philip Morris International Impact, [https://www.pmi-impact.com/explore/about About], Accessed 15 September 2018</ref> The World Health Organization released an official statement:
  
*'''Violating India’s tobacco marketing laws:''' According to a July 2017 report by Reuters, Philip Morris marketed Marlboro cigarettes by placing colorful ads at kiosks and handing out free cigarettes at parties frequented by young adults, in apparent violation of India’s tobacco control laws. <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/pmi-india/ PART 2 Philip Morris takes aim at young people in India, and health officials are fuming], ''Reuters'', July 2017, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
+
    "... Strengthening implementation of the WHO FCTC for all tobacco products remains the most effective approach to tobacco control. Policies such as tobacco taxes, graphic warning labels, comprehensive bans on advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and offering help to quit tobacco use have been proven to reduce demand for tobacco products. These policies focus not just on helping existing users to quit, but on preventing initiation."<ref> World Health Organization, [http://www.who.int/news-room/detail/28-09-2017-who-statement-on-philip-morris-funded-foundation-for-a-smoke-free-world WHO Statement on Philip Morris funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World], September 2017, Accessed 19 September 2018. </ref>
  
 +
The 2019 Annual Report for PMI Impact states the organization launched two funding rounds and allocated USD 48 million for the implementation of 60 projects in 30 countries. <ref>PMI Impact website,[https://www.pmi-impact.com/_Content/pdf/homepage/PHIL6315%20PMI%20Impact%20Annual%20Report%20A4%20V29%20Digital.pdf PMI Impact report 2019], 2029, p.8, Accessed 16 March 2020</ref>
  
Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids investigation into over 100 social media campaigns by Philip Morris International, [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International]] and [[Imperial Brands]] revealed tobacco companies pay social media influencers on platforms like Instagram, Facebook and Twitter to advertise their products. <ref>Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/press-releases/2018_08_27_ftc PRESS RELEASE New Investigation Exposes How Tobacco Companies Market Cigarettes on Social Media in the U.S. and Around the World],August 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref>
+
List of organisations funded under PMI Impact can be found on the [https://ggtc.world/track-and-trace-systems-tobacco-industry-links/ Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control website] and [[PMI CSR|here]].
  
Response from Philip Morris International:
+
===Foundation for a Smoke-Free World===
  "Philip Morris International does not market or sell any tobacco or nicotine-containing products in the United States. We agree that youth should not have access to or use tobacco or nicotine in any form. PMI’s products are only for, and our marketing and sales activities are tailored to, adult smokers, in compliance with applicable laws in countries outside of the U.S. None of our international activities are directed toward U.S. consumers or youth. <ref> [http://www.cbs8.com/story/39420380/how-big-tobacco-is-using-social-media-to-lure-teens How Big Tobacco is using social media to lure teens], ''CBS 8'', 6 November 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
+
In September 2017, Philip Morris International announced a pledge of USD 80 million dollars a year for 12 years beginning in 2018 for the creation of its latest “independent” research effort, the [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/ Foundation for a Smoke-Free World]. <ref>[http://fortune.com/2017/09/13/philip-morris-billion-smoke-free-foundation/ Philip Morris Pledges Almost $1 Billion to Anti-Smoking Fight], ''Fortune'', September 2017, Accessed 15 September 2018</ref> According to the Foundation's website, it has four focus areas and works to reduce health impacts and deaths from smoking, with the ultimate goal of eliminating smoking worldwide.<ref> Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/our-areas-focus Our areas of focus], Accessed 8 September 2018</ref> In October 2018, a statement by a number of anti-tobacco organisations and universities called for the [https://www.conradchallenge.org/conrad-foundation/ Conrad Foundation] to severe its ties with the Philip Morris International-funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World on an initiative working with high school students in the United States. <ref> Cision, [https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/conrad-foundation-should-sever-ties-with-philip-morris-funded-foundation-for-a-smoke-free-world-300736373.html Conrad Foundation Should Sever Ties with Philip Morris-Funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World], October 2018, Accessed 12 October 2018</ref> The Foundation published a report that encourages tobacco company ‘rebranding’ and offers examples of how other companies, including IBM, GE or Ford, redefined and in some cases (like Ford) rebranded themselves to secure future customers. <ref name="PMI_FSFW"> Foundation For A Smoke-Free World, [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/sites/default/files/fsfw_business_transformation_white_paper.pdf?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_content=nov282018_kol&utm_campaign=always_on_social BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION An Analysis of Case Studies Relevant to Achieving a Smoke-Free World], November 2018, Accessed 17 November 2018 </ref> The report included the following call to action:
 +
  "We invite stakeholders in the business and financial communities, researchers, NGOs, regulators, smokers, and tobacco farmers to join the discussion of the transformational possibilities available to the tobacco industry. We believe the case studies presented in this report will help frame and promote the conversation." {{r|PMI_FSFW}} As of May 2019, the Foundation is still funded solely by Philip Morris International but is “seeking and expects to receive funding from other sources”. <ref name="PMI_FSFW2">  The Lancet, [https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(19)31347-9/fulltext The Philip Morris-funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World: tax return sheds light on funding activities], 6 June 2019, Accessed 21 July 2019 </ref>
  
===Political Spending===
+
Foundation for Smoke-Free World funded the following publications and reports in 2020: <ref> Foundatoin for Smoke-Free World, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.smokefreeworld.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/2020-Reports_Updated.pdf 2020 Publications and Reports], Accessed 22 July 2021</ref>
For a list of political contributions in the United States look [[Political Spending|<strong>here</strong>]].
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
! style="font-weight:bold; width:20%" |Name
 +
! style="font-weight:bold; width:20%" |Author/ Publisher
 +
! style="font-weight:bold; width:40%" |Overview
 +
! style="font-weight:bold; width:40%" |Year
 +
|-
 +
|Tiakina Wāhine Flyer Online
 +
|Author: Glover M.
 +
Centre of Research Excellence: Indigenous Sovereignty & Smoking: January 13, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Potential effects of using non-combustible tobacco and nicotine products during pregnancy: a systematic review.
 +
|Authors: Glover M, Phillips CV.
 +
Harm Reduction Journal : March 02, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|How New Zealand vapers might respond to e-liquid flavor ban
 +
|Author: Glover M.
 +
Centre of Research Excellence: Indigenous Sovereignty & Smoking: March 13, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|The Rise of the Wild-Wild-West Style Robberies
 +
|Author: Glover M.
 +
Centre of Research Excellence: Indigenous Sovereignty & Smoking: March 13, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Tiaki Kaumatua A4 Poster
 +
|Author: Glover M.
 +
Centre of Research Excellence: Indigenous Sovereignty & Smoking: March 24, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Protect Our Elders Fijiian A4 Poster
 +
|Author: Glover M.
 +
Centre of Research Excellence: Indigenous Sovereignty & Smoking: March 24, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|A Report on Smoking Detection and Quitting Technologies
 +
|Authors: Ortis A, Caponnetto P, Polosa R, Urso S, Battiato, S.
 +
Center of Excellence for the Acceleration of Harm Reduction (CoEHAR): April, 10, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Protect our Elders in Urdu A4 Poster
 +
|Author: Glover M.
 +
Centre of Research Excellence: Indigenous Sovereignty & Smoking: April 18, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|The scope of tobacco cessation randomized controlled trials in low- to middle-income countries: protocol for a scoping review.
 +
|Authors: Kumar N, Ainooson J, Billings A, et al.
 +
Systematic Reviews: April 21, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Restricting Flavors in ENDS Could Have Repercussions Beyond Youth’s Use
 +
|Authors: Erkkila B, Kovacevic P, Yach D.
 +
American Public Health Association: May 6, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|A Holistic Approach to Pandemic Recovery
 +
|Author: Yach D.
 +
The Times of India: May 12, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Accelerating an end to smoking: a call to action on the eve of the FCTC’s COP9.
 +
|Author: Yach D.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: May 23, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|An overview of tobacco control interventions in the Global South.
 +
|Authors: Kumar N, Janmohamed K, Jiang J, et al.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: May 25, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Tobacco Use Patterns in five countries during the COVID-19 Lockdown
 +
|Author: Yach D.
 +
Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco: May 28, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|A Critical Interpretive Synthesis to Develop Quality Assessment Tools for E-Cigarette Systematic Reviews: Scope and Protocol
 +
|Authors: O’Leary R, Constanzo F.
 +
Center of Excellence for the Acceleration of Harm Reduction (CoEHAR): May 29, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Quit During COVID019 – staying smokefree in mental health in-patient settings
 +
|Authors: Patwardhan P, Driscoll R.
 +
Centre of Health Research and Education, UK: June 04, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|The First complete Zoroastrian-Parsi Mitochondria Reference Genome: Implications of mitochondrial signatures in an endogamous, non-smoking population
 +
|Authors: Patell VM, Pasha N, Krishnasamy K, et al.
 +
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: June 08, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|COVID-19 FSFW’s smoking poll highlights doctors’ crucial role
 +
|Author: Yach D.
 +
Sama Insider: July 7, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Tobacco smoking in three ‘left behind’ subgroups: indigenous, the rainbow community and people with mental health conditions.
 +
|Authors: Glover M, Patwardhan P, Selket K.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: July 9, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2002
 +
|-
 +
|Tobacco harm reduction in the 21st century
 +
|Authors: O’Leary R, Polosa R.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: July 14, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Goodbye Nicky hello Goldie – exploring the opportunities for transitioning tobacco farmers into cannabis production in Malawi
 +
|Authors: Sowoya L, Akamwaza C, Mathews Matola A, Klein A.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: July 15, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Perceptions of nicotine in current and former users of tobacco and tobacco harm reduction products from seven countries.
 +
|Authors: Rajkumar S, Adibah N, Paskow MJ, et al.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: July 17, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Overcoming barriers to disseminate effective smoking cessation treatments globally.
 +
|Authors: Patwardhan S, Rose JE.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: July 18, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Government intervention in the market for electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)
 +
|Authors: Yurekli AA, Kovacevic P, Sunley E, et al.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: July 20, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Gender, women, and the future of tobacco control.
 +
|Author: Solomon A.
 +
Drugs and Alcohol Today: August 03, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|People trust the state less than doctors, which is where smoking comes in
 +
|Author: Yach, D.
 +
Business Day: August 12, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Better to let them smoke and die? Bloomberg funded major international NGO’s logic for LMICs is baffling and worrying
 +
|Author: Yach D.
 +
CSD Consulting: August 12, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Expert urges innovations in tobacco control
 +
|Author: Satapathy, S.
 +
Asia Times: August 30, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Nicotine products relative risk assessment: a systematic review and meta-analysis
 +
|Authors: Murkett R, Rugh M, Ding B.
 +
F1000
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|International Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating Changes in Oral Health in Smokers after Switching to Combustion-Free Nicotine Delivery Systems: SMILE Study protocol
 +
|Authors: Conte G, Antonio Pacino S, Urso S, Polosa R, et al.
 +
Center of Excellence for the Acceleration of Harm Reduction (CoEHAR): December 14, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|A Review on Food Recognition Technology for Health Applications
 +
|Authors: Allegra D, Battiato S, Ortis A, Urso S, & Polosa, R.
 +
Center of Excellence for the Acceleration of Harm Reduction (CoEHAR): December 30, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Trends in tobacco smoking and smoking cessation in Russia with a focus on Indigenous populations: A narrative review
 +
|Authors: Merkin A, Nikolaev A, Nikoforov I, Komarrov A, Glover M.
 +
Elsevier: December 31, 2020
 +
|NA
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Tobacco Harm Reduction and the Right to Health
 +
|Knowledge.Action.Change
 +
|A Global State of Tobacco Harm Reduction introductory briefing paper, Tobacco harm reduction and the right to health offers an overview of key issues in tobacco harm reduction, its public health potential and its relationship with human rights.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Rapid Assessment of Smoking and Vaping in Pakistan during COVID-19 Lockdown
 +
|Alternative Research Initiative
 +
|This rapid perception study assessed availability and accessibility of vaping and smoking during the lockdown and the impact of Covid-19 on them. PANTHR collected primary qualitative data from 120 respondents in 11 districts – Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Sialkot, Multan, Peshawar, Abbottabad, Quetta, Karachi and Hyderabad - by conducting interviews telephonically. With the consent of the respondents, interviews have been recorded. All study respondents, smokers and vapers, are male, and mostly between 18-35 years old. There are significantly more smokers than vapers in the age bracket 35 years and above.
 +
|Published March 2020
 +
|-
 +
|COVID-19 State of Smoking Poll
 +
|Foundation for a Smoke-Free World
 +
|The Foundation for a Smoke-Free World commissioned a poll in five countries that explores the relationship between COVID-19 social distancing and health among 6,801 tobacco and nicotine users. More than two thirds of the respondents rely on tobacco and nicotine as their main tool to manage stress and anxiety. Nearly 40% of smokers increased use of these products in recent weeks, which could equate to elevated use by more than 50 million smokers in the five countries polled.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Watching Briefs: Hungary
 +
|Foundation for a Smoke-Free World
 +
|The Watching Brief series chronicles the most up-to-date data on smoking across the world. In the first of this series, Foundation economist Ayda Yurekli examines the current state of the Hungarian tobacco industry. From analyses of excise taxes to an investigation of illicit trade, this two-part Brief offers an illuminating look into the past, present, and future of smoking in Hungary.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Farm Level Analysis of the Impact of COVID19 on Agrifood Systems in Malawi
 +
|MwAPATA Institute
 +
|Nearly 300 farmers were interviewed to assess the impact of COVID-19 and the Government efforts to combat the disease on agricultural production and marketing during the 2019-2020 agricultural season. Farmers were also asked how they expect the effects will last into the 2020-2021 season.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Agricultural Transformation in Malawi: A Call to Action
 +
|MwAPATA Institute
 +
|This paper seeks to 1) highlight the urgent need for change in Malawi’s economic management and performance, 2) highlight policy interventions that Malawi could adopt to achieve significant economic development, and 3) address the question of how the necessary transformation may be brought about.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|India Country Report
 +
|Foundation for a Smoke-Free World
 +
|The Foundation for a Smoke-Free World is committed to filling key knowledge gaps in our collective understanding of tobacco production and use, especially in the low- and middle-income countries where it is increasingly grown and consumed. In that vein, this report provides a glimpse of the tobacco landscape in India. As one of the world’s largest producers and consumers of tobacco, understanding this landscape and the opportunities to transform – both literally and figuratively – have never been more important. This report only scratches the surface of the forces shaping that landscape, but we hope that, in doing so, it encourages others to make even greater explorations of it.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|The Future of Smallholder Farming in Malawi
 +
|MwAPATA Institute
 +
|The study characterizes smallholder farming in Malawi, projects the consequences of a ‘business as usual’ strategy and identifies promising government strategies to support smallholder livelihoods and contribute to wealth creation.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|THR: Regulatory Economic, and Taxation Perspectives (Proceedings of the 2020 Dubrovnik Consultation)
 +
|Foundation for a Smoke-Free World
 +
|This is a summary of expert contributions to the 2020 Dubrovnik Consultation, a summit meeting on regulatory issues, taxation and other perspectives in tobacco harm reduction. This summit was originally planned as a live meeting in Dubrovnik, Croatia in mid-2020, but was postponed due to the global COVID-19 pandemic. The expert contributions to the virtual meetings are summarized in this document. The Dubrovnik Consultation is a unique opportunity to identify areas of intervention in tobacco harm reduction regulation and to enable the Foundation of the Smoke-Free World to prioritize future areas of research.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Unlocking Implementation Challenges: Lessons from the Agricultural Sector
 +
|MwAPATA Institute
 +
|This study investigates the causes of challenges in programs, policies and strategies implementation in agricultural sector and draw lessons that can inform the ministries responsible for agriculture and rural development address these challenges.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Women as Levers of Change
 +
|Foreign Policy Analytics
 +
|The report, Women as Levers of Change, examines the current state of gender inequality in historically male dominated industries, ways in which women are driving progress toward industry transformation and sustainable development, factors preventing gender diversity, and best practices for unleashing the transformative power of women. The report found that within 14 legacy industries, women on average represent just over 20% of the employees hired by publicly listed companies, 18% of executive management, and only 13% of board seats. These deficiencies exist even though companies with the highest percentages of women in management were 47% more profitable.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Contradictions and Conflicts
 +
|Just Managing Consulting
 +
|Research by leading international business and corporate governance scholar Daniel Malan identifies inherent conflicts of interest with many of the countries leading the development of global tobacco control policy. The “Contradictions and Conflicts” report specifically identifies contradictions between governments’ fiduciary responsibility to maximize state monopoly profitability and their health responsibility to minimize public health risks, as well as generate potential solutions.
 +
Tobacco products kill 8 million people every year. Between 2000 and 2019, overall global tobacco use declined by less than a quarter of a percentage point per year, despite global attempts to address the pandemic, spearheaded by the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), in force since 2005. There are currently 182 parties to the FCTC, which has as its main objective “to protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure”.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|An Early Assessment of the Impact of COVID19 in Malawi
 +
|MwAPATA Institute
 +
|The COVID-19 crisis has impacted every facet of Malawi's agricultural value chains. We present and evaluate new data from across the spectrum to begin to allow policy makers to make decisions with information on how the country has been affected and discuss the importance of continued monitoring.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Phasing Out Combustible Cigarettes
 +
|Author: Derek Yach
 +
|This paper outlines rational, researched-based strategies for phasing out combustible cigarettes, including a “nudge” approach and logical regulatory actions. Central to this plan are scientifically informed policies regarding THRPs. Unfortunately, the media and public officials have distributed so much misinformation about these products that an increasing numbers of smokers think their health risks are equal to that of combustible cigarettes. This view is not only inaccurate but dangerous, and public officials have an ethical and professional obligation to correct these misperceptions.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Smoky Horizons: Tobacco And Empire In Asia, 1850 – 2000
 +
|Asia Public History Foundation
 +
|Few have attempted to study the introduction and spread of tobacco cultivation in Asia using an analytical frame, which integrates the imperial economy, local social structures, and the commodity history of tobacco. This is a report on preliminary archival and ethnographic work on the economic and social relationship between tobacco cultivation and imperial expansion in Asia, focusing primarily on British India (today’s nation-states of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), China, and Japan.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Manufacturing and Industrialization in Malawi: Trends, Opportunities, and Strategies
 +
|MwAPATA Institute
 +
|We review experiences from other fast-growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa and newly industrialized economies in East Asia to draw out lessons for Malawi’s industrialization strategy to promote employment, wealth creation, and reduced economic vulnerabilities associated with primary agricultural products.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|2020 Tobacco Transformation Index (TM) Ranking Report
 +
|Foundation for a Smoke Free World
 +
|The 2020 Tobacco Transformation Index TM represents the first comprehensive effort to evaluate tobacco companies’ commitments and actions as they relate to tobacco harm reduction.
 +
The 2020 index assesses the activities and performance of the world’s 15 most globally and regionally influential tobacco companies as they pertain to tobacco harm reduction. This includes analyzing and comparing companies’ respective product offerings, sales performance, and capital investments for both high-risk tobacco products and reduced-risk alternatives. The 2020 index also compares companies’ activities and performance across 36 countries, which are divided into groups of low-medium income (LMIC) and high-medium income (HMIC).
 +
By monitoring and critically evaluating tobacco companies’ behavior, including actions that either support or impede tobacco harm reduction, the Index provides objective, transparent information to all stakeholders and incentivizes companies to act more quickly and responsibly than they otherwise would.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|Burning Issues
 +
|Knowledge. Action. Change.
 +
|This latest report in The Global State of Tobacco Harm Reduction series from UK-based public health agency Knowledge·Action·Change (KAC) examines the role of tobacco harm reduction. The authors show there is an urgent need to scale up tobacco harm reduction if its full public health potential is to be realized.
 +
Their first report, No Fire, No Smoke that was published in 2018, documents the history and development of harm reduction, as well as use, availability and regulatory responses to safer nicotine products around the world.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|The Past, Present, and Future of Land Use in Malawi: A Background Review
 +
|MwAPATA Institute
 +
|The history of land use, ownership, and development in Malawi is traced from the colonial era to the present. Juxtaposing challenges faced by estate holders and smallholders highlights potential for mutually beneficial partnerships. Examples of land use schemes are probed to explore options for Malawi.
 +
|2020
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
==Reporting and Regulation==
+
In September 2020, the Foundation's funding was reduced from USD 80 million in 2019 to USD 45 million in 2020, as confirmed by the tax
 +
return.
  
The US Food and Drug Administration authorized Philip Morris Products S.A. to sell IQOS and three types of Heatsticks in the United States. The agency made it clear that it does not mean the products are safe or “FDA approved.<ref>[https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-permits-sale-iqos-tobacco-heating-system-through-premarket-tobacco-product-application-pathway?utm_source=CTPTwitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=ctp-pmta FDA permits sale of IQOS Tobacco Heating System through premarket tobacco product application pathway], ''FDA website'', 30 April 2019, 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
In 2018, the Foundation spent only about USD 6.46 million on grants to other organizations. In contrast, the Foundation spent USD 7.6 million–on public relations activities. <ref name="Expose"> Expose Tobacco, [https://exposetobacco.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/FSFW_Tax_Return.pdf Latest Tax Return Sheds Light on The Philip Morris-funded Foundation for a Smoke-free World], p. 1, Accessed 19 September 2019</ref>
  
Philip Morris urged the Indian government to create a regulatory environment for “scientifically substantiated smoke-free alternatives” after the US FDA authorised the sale of the product in the United States. <ref>[https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/philip-morris-urges-govt-to-create-regulatory-environment-for-smoke-free-alternatives/articleshow/69344795.cms Philip Morris urges govt to create regulatory environment for smoke-free alternatives], ''The Times of India'', 15 May 2019, 13 June 2019 </ref>  
+
In 2019, Foundation for a Smoke- Free World conducted the 2019 The Global State of Smoking Poll, a follow-up to the initial 2017 poll. The report "features an extensive evaluation of current smoking behaviors and use of alternative nicotine products, as well as beliefs and perceptions regarding the harmfulness and addictiveness of various nicotine products.<ref name="GLOBALPOLL”> Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/global-state-of-smoking-poll-2019/ Global State of Smoking Poll 2019], Accessed 27 March 2020 </ref>
  
==Investigations==
+
Foundation for a Smoke-Free World sponsors the website [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.understandingnicotine.org/ Understanding Nicotine], a dynamic website that provides information on nicotine research and products. The link between the Foundation and its funder Philip Morris International is not immediately clear. <ref>Understanding Nicotine, [ https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.understandingnicotine.org/About], Accessed 11 May 2021 </ref>
  
According to the Independent, [[British American Tobacco]], [[Imperial Brands]], [[Japan Tobacco International]] and Philip Morris International have all shifted their corporate structures to minimise their tax bills in the United Kingdom, researchers from the University of Bath found. Despite being headquartered in Britain, Imperial Brands paid an effective rate of just 13 per cent over the past seven years, during which corporation tax has varied between 20 per cent and 28 per cent. British American Tobacco is also based in the UK but paid “virtually no” corporation tax over the same period, including four consecutive years (2011-14) where it paid nothing at all, the paper found. <ref> [https://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/tobacco-companies-uk-corporation-tax-profits-university-bath-study-a8764841.html Tobacco companies uk corporation tax profits university bath study], ''Independent'', 16 February 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
+
India’s health ministry revised its guidelines for ‘Tobacco-free Educational Institutions’ to ensure that schools and students should not accept awards from tobacco manufacturers after a team from Delhi Public School in R.K. Puram participated in a competition sponsored by the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World. <ref>[https://thewire.in/business/philip-morris-tobacco-smoking-school-children Exclusive: A Tobacco Company-Funded Foundation Is Using a Contest to Target School Children], ''The Wire'', 12 June 2019, Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref> In 2019, the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance has accused the Foundation for a Smoke-free World of hijacking its Smoke-free Index. <ref> SEATCA website, [https://seatca.org/?p=14334 Foundation funded by Philip Morris hijacks SEATCA’s Smoke-Free Index], 15 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
  
India's main financial crime-fighting agency is investigating Philip Morris International’s Indian partner Godfrey Phillips for alleged violation of the country's nine-year-old government ban on foreign direct investment in the industry. <ref>[https://www.nasdaq.com/article/india-investigating-philip-morris-godfrey-phillips-20190308-00232 India investigating Philip Morris, Godfrey Phillips] ''Nasdaq'', 8 March 2019,  Accessed April 2019 </ref> Members of the Egyptian Parliament are preparing to launch a thorough investigation into the activities of Philip Morris Misr LLC after several allegations are made of the tobacco company attempts to sack Egypt’s national industry of Cigarettes. <ref> [http://www.egypttoday.com/Article/1/65256/Philip-Morris-ugly-face-unveiled-Egypt-Parliament-to-probe-into PM ugly face unveiled Egypt Parliament to probe into], ''Egypt Today'', 26 February 2019, Accessed April 2019 </ref>
+
An analysis of GlobalData's Tobacco Alternatives Influencer Network Platform revealed Charles A. Gardner, Director at the Foundation for a Smoke Free World, as the top tobacco influencer during the second quarter of 2020. <ref>Market Screener, [https://www.marketscreener.com/quote/stock/GLOBALDATA-PLC-13101755/news/GlobalData-reveals-top-10-tobacco-influencers-on-Twitter-in-Q2-2020-31013611/ GlobalData : reveals top 10 tobacco influencers on Twitter in Q2 2020], 29 July 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020 </ref>
  
As of September 2018, U.S. national securities law firm [http://www.faruqilaw.com/ Faruqi & Faruqi] is investigating potential claims against Philip Morris International, encourages investors who suffered losses exceeding USD 100,000 investing in the company to contact them. <ref> PR Newswire, [https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/philip-morris-investor-alert-faruqi--faruqi-llp-encourages-investors-who-suffered-losses-exceeding-100-000-investing-in-philip-morris-international-inc-to-contact-the-firm-300707554.html PHILIP MORRIS INVESTOR ALERT], September 2018, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
+
Complete profile on the Philip Morris International-funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World can be found [http://www.tobaccotactics.org/index.php?title=Foundation_for_a_Smoke-Free_World here].
  
===Tobacco Litigation===
+
STOP,  a partnership between The Tobacco Control Research Group at the University of Bath, The Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control, The Union’s Department of Tobacco Control, and Vital Strategies, galvanized support for WHO from more than 279 organizations and individuals in 50 countries to publicly reject an approach for collaboration from a Philip Morris International-funded foundation. <ref> World Health Organization, [https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/326043/9789241516204-eng.pdf?ua=1 WHO REPORT ON THE GLOBAL TOBACCO EPIDEMIC, 2019 Offer help to quit tobacco use], p. 63, 2019, Accessed 11 March 2020 </ref>
  
Brazil's solicitor general's office is suing [[British American Tobacco]] Plc and Philip Morris International to recover the public health treatment costs of tobacco-related diseases over the last five years. <ref> [https://www.bloombergquint.com/onweb/philip-morris-influencer-tobacco-ads-on-social-media-under-fire Philip Morris Influencer Tobacco Ads on Social Media Under Fire], ''Bloomberg'', 22 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref> This move had been praised by the World Health Organisation. <ref> [ https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-7068245/WHO-praises-Brazil-lawsuit-against-tobacco-giants.html WHO praises Brazil lawsuit against tobacco giants], Mail Online, 24 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
Foundation For A Smoke-Free World started an ongoing series of conversations with Derek Yach and "experts" in global health. The podcast series focuses on how smoking sits at "the nexus of many major health issues". <ref>Foundation for A Smoke-Free World website, [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/podcast/ Podcast], 14 April 2020, Accessed 15 April 2020</ref>
  
A Canadian court has upheld the bulk of a decision that ordered three tobacco companies to pay billions in damages. The judgment involves class action suits that were consolidated against Imperial Tobacco Canada, [[Philip Morris International|Rothmans Benson & Hedges]] and [[Japan Tobacco International|JTI-MacDonald]]. <ref>[https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-47409916 Canada appeals court orders tobacco firms to pay billions in damages], ''BBC'', 1 March 2019, Accessed 23 April 2019 </ref>
+
In October 2020, the Foundation released the Tobacco Transformation Index. The Index ranks the world’s 15 largest tobacco companies on their relative progress toward, so-called "harm reduction". <ref> Tobacco Transformation Index website, [https://web.archive.org/web/20201123025447/https://tobaccotransformationindex.org/], Accessed 1 December 2020 </ref> According to the website, the report was developed through consultations with representatives of academia, associations, business, international organizations, investment community, media, NGOs, think tanks, and advocacy organizations. The Foundation claims that although tobacco companies are also stakeholders of the Index, they were intentionally excluded from the consultations <ref> Tobacco Transformation Index website, [https://web.archive.org/web/20201105085308/https://tobaccotransformationindex.org/stakeholder-consultation Stakeholder Consultation Home Page], Accessed 1 December 2020 </ref> The company employs Euromonitor International and a private research consultancy SustainAbility to conduct the research. <ref>TobaccoTactics, [https://web.archive.org/web/20201201071057/https://tobaccotactics.org/wiki/fsfw-tti/ Foundation for a Smoke-Free World’s Tobacco Transformation Index], 23 October 2020, Accessed 1 December 2020 </ref> More information on the relationship can be found on [[TobaccoTacticshttps://tobaccotactics.org/wiki/fsfw-tti/|TobaccoTactics]].
  
Philip Morris (New Zealand) is suing British American Tobacco (New Zealand), alleging its larger rival is breaching competition law by locking retailers into contracts designed to preserve its dominance in a NZD 2.5 billion market. <ref> [http://www.sharechat.co.nz/article/bbece5d0/big-tobacco-firms-clash-in-nz-as-philip-morris-sues-bat-for-anti-competitive-behaviour.html BIG TOBACCO FIRMS CLASH IN NZ AS PHILIP MORRIS SUES BAT FOR ANTI-COMPETITIVE BEHAVIOUR], ''Sharechat'', 22 March 2018, Accessed 2 September 2018 </ref>
+
The Heru & Hapū Māmā Programme pilot in New Zealand was funded by the Centre of Research Excellence: Indigenous Sovereignty & Smoking as part of a programme of research supported by a grant from the Foundation for a SmokeFree World. The organisation disclosed the links to PMI
 +
Global Services Inc but did not mention "Philip Morris" by its full name. <ref>Correiss, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://coreiss.com/file/display/publication/23/heru_and_hapu_interactive_june_21.pdf Heru & Hapū Māmā: Reinstituting Traditional Practices To Reduce Smoking While Pregnant], p. 5, May 2021, Accessed 12 July 2021</ref>
  
The Constitutional Court in Kampala has thrown out a petition by the British American Tobacco Uganda against government over the Tobacco Control Act 2015. BAT Uganda dragged government to court challenging the constitutionality of the act that came into force on May 18, 2016 six months after the president had assented to it. <ref>[https://nilepost.co.ug/2019/05/28/court-blasts-bat-uganda-as-petition-against-tobacco-control-act-is-thrown-out/ Court blasts BAT Uganda as petition against Tobacco Control Act is thrown out], Nile Post, 28 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
==Interference==
  
A full list of tobacco industry litigation cases can be found [[Tobacco Control Litigation | <strong>here</strong>]].
+
===International Organizations===
 +
An investigative report published by Reuters in July 2017 revealed a large-scale secret campaign by Philip Morris International to undermine the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/pmi-who-fctc/ Inside Philip Morris’ campaign to subvert the global anti-smoking treaty], ''Reuters'', July 2017, Accessed September 2018</ref>, depicting “a company that has focused its vast global resources on bringing to heel the world’s tobacco control treaty.” <ref> Campaign For Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/images/content/PMI_bad_acts.pdf The Facts about Philip Morris International:Company Is Cause of the Tobacco Problem, Not the Solution], November 2017, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
  
In recent years, Philip Morris has also filed numerous legal challenges, both in national and international courts, to strong measures designed to reduce smoking adopted by Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Panama, Uruguay and the United Kingdom. One of the company’s favorite tactics has been to challenge tobacco control laws as violations of international trade and investment agreements. Examples of the company’s legal challenges include:
+
===Africa===
 +
In July 2017, The Guardian published a series of stories which detailed large tobacco companies, including Philip Morris International, have fought tobacco control efforts throughout Africa. <ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/12/big-tobacco-dirty-war-africa-market Threats, bullying, lawsuits: tobacco industry's dirty war for the African market], ''The Guardian'', July 2017, Accessed September 2018</ref>
  
*Philip Morris International challenged '''Australia’s pioneering law requiring plain cigarette packaging''' both in Australia’s courts and in an international tribunal as a violation of a bilateral investment treaty between Australia and Hong Kong. The company lost both cases. According to media reports, Philip Morris has also helped finance an ongoing World Trade Organization challenge that several countries filed against Australia’s plan packaging law (Australia has reportedly won the case, but the World Trade Organization has not officially released its ruling).<ref>[https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-05-04/wto-said-to-uphold-australia-s-ban-on-cigarette-logos Tobacco Logo Ban Said to Get WTO Backing in Landmark Case], ''Bloomberg'', May 2017 Accessed September 2018</ref>
+
===Australia===
*Philip Morris challenged Uruguay’s strong cigarette warning and labeling laws as violations of a bilateral investment treaty between Uruguay and Switzerland. In a landmark ruling, an arbitration panel of the World Bank ruled for Uruguay and ordered Philip Morris to pay Uruguay’s legal costs. <ref> Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/content/press_office/2016/2016_07_08_uruguay.pdf INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR SETTLEMENT OF INVESTMENT DISPUTES WASHINGTON, D.C.], July 2016, Accessed September 2018</ref>
 
*In Thailand, Philip Morris’ ongoing legal challenge temporarily stopped the Ministry of Health from increasing the size of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packs. <ref>Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, [https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/litigation/decisions/th-20130823-philip-morris-thailand-limit-1 LITIGATION BY COUNTRY THAILAND], August 2013, Accessed September 2018</ref>
 
*In Colombia, a Philip Morris subsidiary is suing a local government for protecting kids and vulnerable populations by banning sales of cigarette and other tobacco products around schools and health facilities, among other sales restrictions.<ref>[http://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento-2013/DR-910957 Coltabaco, contra norma de Alcaldía de Popayán], ''El Tiempo'', March 2015, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
 
  
In 2015, a Canadian court has ordered units of [[British American Tobacco]], Philip Morris International and [[Japan Tobacco International|Japan Tobacco]] Inc. to pay  CAD 15.6 billion in damages to Quebec smokers after a 17-year legal battle. <ref> [https://www.wsj.com/articles/tobacco-firms-ordered-to-pay-12-5-billion-in-canada-1433242864 Tobacco Firms Ordered to Pay $12.5 Billion to Smokers in Canada], ''The Wall Street Journal'', 2 June 2015, Accessed December 2018 </ref>
+
The Australian Retailers Association (ARA) ended its relationship with global PR firm Burson Cohn & Wolfe, which had channelled funds from Philip Morris. According to the media, the association signed a $250,000 contract on February 1, 2020 to lobby the government for e-cigarettes to be legalised, on health grounds. The contract included an option to extend for a further six months, which would have taken total payments to AUD 500,000 over 12 months. Burson Cohn & Wolfe began working with the ARA in August 2019, initially under different financial arrangements. It’s believed that ARA had earlier contracts directly with Philip Morris. The Burson Cohn & Wolfe contracts were set up after the board expressed growing unease with taking tobacco funding. The ARA began setting up the Australian Retail Vaping Industry Association in September (ARVIA) in September 2019 to lobby to legalise e-cigarettes, working with another group, Legalise Vaping Australia. The two groups helped trigger a Senate inquiry into e-cigarettes, chaired by Liberal Senator Hollie Hughes. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210310095105/https://www.afr.com/companies/retail/australian-retailers-association-cancels-secret-tobacco-contract-20210219-p5740g Australian Retailers Association cancels secret tobacco contract], ''The Australian'', 20 February 2021, Accessed 10 March 2021 </ref>  
  
Philip Morris Korea Inc., which refuted the finding by the South Korean government that underscored health risks in the heat-not-burn cigarettes, presenting its own clinical study in a press briefing to defend its original argument that "smokeless tobacco can reduce health risks". The Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety announced earlier this month that IQOS emits 9.3 mg of tar, a level higher than that of conventional cigarettes (0.1-8.0 mg). <ref> [https://pulsenews.co.kr/view.php?year=2018&no=386216 Philip Morris defends IQOS safety vs regular cigarettes], ''Pulse'', 19 June 2018, Accessed December 2018 </ref>
+
Australian medical professionals are fighting an application by Philip Morris International to sell its IQOS in Australia, warning there is "no evidence" the product is any safer than smoking cigarettes. The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners and Australian Medical Association have written to the Therapeutic Goods Administration, asking the regulator to reject the application until the health impacts have been properly studied. <ref>[https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/politics/federal/doctors-hit-back-at-big-tobacco-bid-to-sell-vaping-products-in-australia-20200216-p541at.html Doctors hit back at 'big tobacco' bid to sell vaping products in Australia], ''Brisbane Times'', 16 February 2020, Accessed 16 March 2020 </ref>
  
Philip Morris executives Andre Calantzopoulos (CEO), Martin G. King (CFO) and Jacek Olczak (COO) sold off millions of dollars stock while withholding information about the company’s stagnant sales, investors claim in a class action. <ref>[https://www.courthousenews.com/class-claims-rosy-statements-preceded-massive-philip-morris-stock-price-drop/ Class Claims ‘Rosy Statements’ Preceded Massive Philip Morris Stock Price Drop], Courthouse News, 10 September 2018, Accessed January 2019 </ref>
+
A series of Philip Morris-sponsored articles about vaping published on the website of The Australian newspaper may breach national tobacco advertising promotion laws. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210114082134/https://www.theguardian.com/media/2020/nov/19/philip-morris-sponsored-articles-in-the-australian-could-breach-tobacco-advertising-laws Philip Morris-sponsored articles in the Australian could breach tobacco advertising laws], ''The Guardian'', 18 November 2020, Accessed 14 January 2021 </ref>
  
The Supreme Court of Canada ruled in July 2018 that British Columbia does not have to grant access to the personal health data of Canadian citizens to Philip Morris International to determine "whether government claims about the cost of treating smokers were accurate". In the current case, Philip Morris sought, in the words of the government:
+
Correspondence obtained by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) revealed that in 2019 Philip Morris sent meeting requests and pro-vaping letters to Prime Minister Scott Morrison, Health Minister Greg Hunt and Minister for Indigenous Australians Ken Wyatt, among others. The ABC is not aware any meetings with the three ministers took place, but health groups are troubled by the tobacco industry's continued efforts to influence Australian health policy. <ref>[https://www.abc.net.au/news/science/2020-01-10/tobacco-industry-sought-vaping-meetings-with-pm-and-cabinet/11855264?fbclid=IwAR3d6Fp06Q0qBdsN2dXTydkOa3-7xZmfJkpoV4MF9pwY64dRnszHEVDW_7M. Tobacco giants lobby PM and key MPs with pro-vaping message], ''ABC'', 10 January 2020, Accessed 19 February 2020 </ref>
  “electronic health care databases which contain health care information of every person in British Columbia who has received health care benefits. These databases include individual-level records of every hospital, medical and other health care attendance, diagnosis and treatment provided during the past 25 years to each insured person.<ref> [https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-theres-a-big-legal-battle-between-the-provinces-and-the-tobacco/ The long, long fight against Big Tobacco], ''The Globe and Mail'', 13 July 2018, Accessed January 2019 </ref>
 
  
==Partners and Allies==
+
In October 2018, Guardian reported that Philip Morris International has been lobbying the members of Australian federal government to overturn Australia’s ban on vaping, but its efforts remain hidden from the public as Philip Morris International was not required to register as lobbyist because it uses own staff rather than third-party consultants. Guardian Australia reported Philip Morris International has been seeking meetings with Coalition MPs as part of its bid to overturn the vaping ban. Some within government have refused to meet with the company. Philip Morris International has also placed prominent ads on page three of both the Australian and the Australian Financial Review, calling for staff to help it achieve a “future without cigarettes” and a “smoke-free Australia”. Tobacco advertisements are banned under Australian law, but Philip Morris appears to have relied on an exemption allowing job ads.<ref> [https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/oct/03/philip-morris-lobbying-on-e-cigarettes-hidden-from-australian-public Philip Morris lobbying on e-cigarettes hidden from Australian public], ''The Guardian'', 8 October 2018, Accessed 16 October 2018</ref>
  
===Banking, Auditing and Accounting===
+
Philip Morris International disclosed the following political contributions:
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Name
+
! Political organization
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Contract Status
+
!Liberal Democratic Party
! style="font-weight:bold;width=20%" |Notes
+
!National Party of Australia (Federal Division)
 +
!John McEwen House Pty Ltd (an "associated entity" of the National Party)
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://www.pwc.com/ PricewaterhouseCoopers (2018)]
+
|2020 <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/our_company/transparency/political-contributions-2020.pdf?sfvrsn=dc91b6b4_2 Political Contributions 2020], 2021, Accessed 19 July 2021</ref>
|Active
+
|34,578
| [https://www.pwc.com/ PricewaterhouseCoopers (PWC)] are Philip Morris International's current auditors.<ref>Phillip Morris International, [https://www.pmi.com/our-business/about-us/corporate-governance/corporate-audit-our-auditors CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Corporate Audit & Our Auditors], Accessed September 2018 </ref> Appointed at the 2017 annual shareholder meeting. In 2017 PWC were selected by the office of the Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety, European Parliament, to perform an implementation study on ‘track and trace’ solutions in the tobacco industry. A question was raised if there would be a conflict of interest since PricewaterhouseCoopers offers it's own "track and trace" solution already and would potentially be in a position to audit themselves.<ref>European Parliament, [http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+WQ+E-2016-009343+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&amp;language=en Subject:  Conflict of interest between PwC and tobacco industry], December 2016, Accessed September 2018</ref>
+
|NA
 +
|NA
 
|-
 
|-
| [https://www.ey.com/en_gl EY U.S. (2019)]
+
|2019 <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/our_company/transparency/pmi-political-contributions-2019.pdf?sfvrsn=63f428b4_4 Political Contributions 2019], 2020, Accessed 19 July 2021</ref>
| Active
+
|7,137
| The Foundation for a Smoke-Free World used EY U.S. as the Foundation auditor in 2019.  <ref> Foundation for a Smoke-Free World, [https://www.smokefreeworld.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/fsfw_2018_form_990-pf_public_inspection.pdf Return of Private Foundation], April 2019, p. 16, Accessed 9 July 2019 </ref>
+
|NA
 +
|NA
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://www.morganstanley.com/ Morgan Stanley (2018)]
+
|2018 <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/our_company/transparency/political-contributions-2018.pdf?sfvrsn=c9479fb5_2 Political Contributions 20199], 2019, Accessed 19 July 2021</ref>
|Active
+
|30,143
| Philip Morris International presented at the Morgan Stanley Global Consumer & Retail Conference in New York, November 2018. <ref> [https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20181113005617/en/Philip-Morris-International-Presents-Morgan-Stanley-Global/?feedref=JjAwJuNHiystnCoBq_hl-aH2gtkQQ1l6W3ZaPesXFm57cpar2z2OJ_5SQGMGwVHJgBtFNItNzWaC-E-WdoEDnkz6i6lCdteeEqxiTxGYcX8eF_GK2rQqAnK3e1SETIZU Philip Morris International Inc. Presents at the Morgan Stanley Global Consumer & Retail Conference; Reaffirms 2018 Full-Year Reported Diluted EPS Guidance], ''Business Wire'', November 2018, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
+
|25,568
 +
|15,396
 +
|-
 +
|}
  
In May 2019, Philip Morris International Chief Financial Officer Martin King addressed investors at the Goldman Sachs Global Staples Forum in New York. <ref> Business Wire website, [https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20190514005191/en/Philip-Morris-International-Presents-Goldman-Sachs-Global Philip Morris International Inc. Presents at Goldman Sachs Global Staples Forum], 14 May 2019, Accessed 8 June 2019 </ref>
+
===Colombia===
|-
+
Philip Morris International signed an agreement with the National Police and the National Federation of Departments to provide training to enforcement officers working on combating tobacco "illicit trade". <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/health-pays-price-big-tobacco-woos-policymakers/ Health pays the price when Big Tobacco woos policymakers], ''The Telegraph'', 17 November 2020, Accessed 14 January 2020</ref>
|[https://home.kpmg.com/us/en/home.html KPMG] (2014)
+
 
|NA
+
===European Union===
| A KPMG conducted a study for British American Tobacco, Imperial Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International and Philip Morris International that revealed one in every ten cigarettes consumed in the European Union in 2013 were illicit. <ref> Japan Tobacco International, [https://www.jti.com/our-views/newsroom/one-ten-cigarettes-consumed-eu-2013-were-illegal-dramatic-rise-consumption One in Ten Cigarettes Consumed in the EU in 2013 Were Illegal; Dramatic Rise in Consumption of ‘Illicit Whites’], June 2014, Accessed October 2018 </ref>
+
As of May 2021, there are no Philip Morris International-affiliated persons accredited for access to European Parliament premises. Kristof Doms, Vice President Fiscal Affairs, International Trade and ITP is in charge of EU relations. <ref> European Transparency Register, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://ec.europa.eu/transparencyregister/public/consultation/displaylobbyist.do?id=51925911965-76 Philip Morris International Inc.], Accessed 10 May 2021 </ref>
 +
A New Year's Eve concert in Brussels, organised by the Slovak Permanent Representation to the European Union and under the patronage of Miroslav Šefčovič, EU Commissioner, was co-sponsored by Philip Morris International. <ref>[https://www.politico.eu/article/commission-remains-vulnerable-to-big-tobaccos-siren-song-report-says/ Commission remains vulnerable to Big Tobacco’s siren song, report says], ''Politico'', 2 July 2020, Accessed 20 July 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
In 2013, Philip Morris International spent EUR 5.25 million to lobby members of European Parliament. The amount was the highest for any company in the European Union that year. <ref>[https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2014/10/03/why-did-philip-morris-spend-more-than-anyone-else-lobbying-the-e-u/#771e59a92963 Why Did Philip Morris Spend More Than Anyone Else Lobbying The E.U.?], ''Forbes'', 3 October 2014, Accessed 18 September 2018 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Philip Morris worked with Strategic Research Corporation in Brussels between February 2019 and January 2020. The financial exchange for the services was less than EUR 9,999. <ref> European Transparency Register, [https://ec.europa.eu/transparencyregister/public/consultation/displaylobbyist.do?id=458933638480-27 Transparency Register], 9 June 2020, Accessed 7 December 2020 </ref> EU Transparency register lists Philip Morris International as a member of various associations and networks around the world, including:{{r|PMI_TB}} AmCham EU, The American European Community Association (AECA), European Policy Centre (EPC), Kangaroo Group, BusinessEurope, VBO-FBE, European Communities Trade Mark Association (ECTA), MARQUES, , Lithuanian Confederation of Industrialists, American Chamber of Commerce of Lithuania, Spanish Tobacco Roundtable, Ass. Industrial Portuguesa (AIP), Economiesuisse, Czech Foodstuff Chamber, Czech Association Branded Goods, Centromarca, CEOE, Estonian Chamber of Commerce, Latvian Chamber of Commerce, Latvian Traders Association.
 +
 
 +
Corporate Europe Observatory published an analysis of leaked documents outlining the lobbying strategy of tobacco giant Philip Morris International , highlighting top 10 Members of European Parliament with the strongest relationship with Philip Morris. They highlighted a top-10 of MEPs with the strongest relations to Philip Morris, including Othmar Karas, Christofer Fjellner and Wim van de Camp. <ref> Corporate Europe Observatory, [https://corporateeurope.org/power-lobbies/2014/06/mediapart-exposes-unhealthy-liaisons-between-french-mep-and-tobacco-industry Mediapart exposes unhealthy liaisons between French MEP and the tobacco industry], June 2014, Accessed 18 November 2018 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Philip Morris Intenational wrote to Directorate-General for Health and Food Safety of the European Commission to ask whether the Comission would “officially delay the introduction” of the track and trace system. x
 +
 
 +
===Germany===
 +
A profile on Philip Morris International in a German daily Spiegel revealed Philip Morris International is hoping governmental requirements for its new products will be loosened. For instance, they'd like to be rid of the compulsory "smoking kills" banners that adorn their every advertisement. And once they've completed all the necessary studies and long-term investigations, they would like the regulatory watchdogs to allow the tobacco companies to advertise their new products as "safer." <ref>[http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/philip-morris-hypocrisy-on-new-healthy-image-a-1229690.html Big Tobacco's Dubious Health-Conscious Makeover], ''Spiegel'', September 2018, Accessed September 2018 </ref>
  
Philip Morris International has commissioned KPMG to produce the report again in 2019. <ref> Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/investor-relations/press-releases-and-events/press-releases-overview/press-release-details/?newsId=2400783 Philip Morris International: New Report Exposes Continued Impact of Illicit Tobacco Trade in the European Union], 6 June 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
Philip Morris International disclosed the following political contributions:
|-
 
|}
 
  
===Think-tanks & International Organizations===
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Organization
+
! Political organization
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Contract Status
+
!CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union
! style="font-weight:bold;width=20%" |Notes
+
!CSU - Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
 +
!SPD - Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
 +
!FDP - Freie Demokratische Partei
 +
!CDU Saxony
 +
!CSU Obermenzing
 +
!CSU Munchen Land
 
|-
 
|-
|American Enterprise Institute
+
|2020 <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/our_company/transparency/political-contributions-2020.pdf?sfvrsn=dc91b6b4_2 Political Contributions 2020], 2021, Accessed 19 July 2021</ref>
| 2011-2017
+
|17,633
| According to a Guardian report, in 2017, the AEI wrote a letter to the US FDA, encouraging the agency to approve Philip Morris International's IQOS product for sale in the US. The letter said: "It is imperative that current US smokers have access to and be properly informed about safer options. <ref name="Guardian_PMI">  [https://www.theguardian.com/world/ng-interactive/2019/jan/23/free-market-thinktanks-tobacco-control-polices-database#0/?american-conservative-union-foundation Free-market groups and the tobacco industry - full database], ''The Guardian'', April 2019, Accessed 10 July 2019 </ref>  
+
|17,633
 +
|17,633
 +
|17,633
 +
|8,350
 +
|2,268
 +
|2,209
 
|-
 
|-
| American Legislative Exchange Council (Alec)
+
|2019 <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/our_company/transparency/pmi-political-contributions-2019.pdf?sfvrsn=63f428b4_4 Political Contributions 2019], 2020, Accessed 19 July 2021</ref>
|2010-2017
+
|16,533
|In 2017, the group wrote to the US Food and Drug Administration in support of IQOS, a product Philip Morris hopes to sell in the US market as less risky than cigarettes. PR Watch reported in 2014 that “tobacco conglomerate Philip Morris/Altria gave Alec $1,426,700 between 1995 and 2010 – significantly more than the approximately $50,000 a year it was previously reported to have given Alec." {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
+
|16,533
|-
+
|16,533
|Americans for Tax Reform
+
|16,533
|2015-2017
+
|NA
|In 2017, Americans for Tax Reform wrote to the US Food and Drug Administration in support of IQOS, a Philip Morris International product. {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
| Cato Institute
 
| 2010, 2012, 2013
 
|As far back as 2000, internal Philip Morris documents made public through litigation show the Cato Institute listed as one of the company’s "national allies". {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|Fraser Institute
 
| 2011-2012
 
|Between 2012, the Fraser Institute accepted $100,000 from Philip Morris International, for “publishing research studies", according to Philip Morris' charitable disclosures. {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|Goldwater Institute
 
|2011-2017
 
|The Goldwater Institute has opposed tobacco taxes and supported Philip Morris International’s applications to sell new tobacco products in the US. In 2018, the Goldwater Institute's director of healthcare policy testified in favor of FDA approval for IQOS. {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|Heritage Foundation
 
| 2011-2016
 
|The group has also opposed increase regulation on vaping. In 2017, the FDA was reviewing whether to allow Philip Morris International to sell a new product which heats but does not burn tobacco, called IQOS. That year, Heritage called on Congress to “stop blocking alternatives" to smoking. In 2018, the Heritage Foundation called on Congress and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to loosen e-cigarette regulations. The same year, a Heritage scholar testified to the FDA that IQOS had an “impressive record" and should be approved.{{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|Independent Women's Forum
 
|2016-2017
 
|In 2017, an Independent Women’s Forum scholar testified to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that it should approve a new Philip Morris International product called IQOS, which heats but does not burn tobacco, so it does not unintentionally “punish women" by making it more difficult for them to quit smoking. An FDA advisory panel rejected Philip Morris's claims that the stick would be safer than smoking.{{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|Institute for Policy Innovation
 
 
|NA
 
|NA
|The Institute for Policy Innovation argued the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should approve a new Philip Morris International product called IQOS for sale in the US. The product heats tobacco but does not burn it. In its comments, the Institute argued tobacco control "has partially morphed into a movement that is simply in opposition to tobacco companies". {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|James Madison Institute
 
|2012-2016
 
|In 2018, the James Madison Institute testified the US Food and Drug Administration should approve the new Philip Morris International product, IQOS, which heats but does not burn tobacco. {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|John Locke Foundation
 
 
|NA
 
|NA
|The John Locke Foundation has argued in support of selling new Philip Morris products in the United States. In 2017, the group joined several other free-market think-tanks to argue the US Food and Drug Administration should approve the PMI product the IQOS. {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Maryland Public Policy Institute
+
|2018 <ref>Philip Morris International, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/our_company/transparency/political-contributions-2018.pdf?sfvrsn=c9479fb5_2 Political Contributions 20199], 2019, Accessed 19 July 2021</ref>
 +
|17,468
 +
|19,797
 +
|17,468
 +
|17,468
 
|NA
 
|NA
|The Maryland Public Policy Institute has repeatedly opposed tobacco taxes and supported the sale of new Philip Morris products. In 2017, the Maryland Public Policy Institute and several other free market thinktanks urged the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve a new Philip Morris International product called IQOS for sale in the US. {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|R Street Institute
 
|2014-2017
 
|The R Street Institute has argued against regulating vaping products, while accepting donations from tobacco companies. In 2013, a physician identified as R Street Institute's "senior fellow in tobacco policy" argued for less regulation of e-cigarettes in a written comment to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rulemaking. As well, in 2017, the group testified to regulators that Philip Morris International “did a great job" in it application to sell its new IQOS product in the United States. An FDA advisory panel rejected Philip Morris's claims that the stick would be safer than smoking. {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|State Policy Network
 
|2011-2016
 
|Affiliated thinktanks, such as the Public Policy Foundation of West Virginia, have also lobbied the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve a new Philip Morris product called IQOS, which heats tobacco but does not burn it, for sale in the US. An FDA advisory panel rejected Philip Morris's claims that the stick would be safer than smoking. The group has accepted multiple donations from tobacco makers in the last 10 years.{{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|TechFreedom
 
|2016-2017
 
|TechFreedom has written favorably to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) about a new Philip Morris International product called IQOS, which heats but does not burn tobacco. TechFreedom wrote the agency should “expeditiously" approve the new product. {{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|[http://www.verite.org/ Verite] (2016)
 
 
|NA
 
|NA
| Philip Morris International's global program partner, Verité has guided the development of the company’s  Agricultural Labor Practices Program Progress Code and the approach to dealing with labor issues in tobacco-growing. <ref>Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/media-center/news/details/philip-morris-international-marks-progress-in-addressing-labor-issues-in-tobacco-growing Philip Morris International marks progress in addressing labor issues in tobacco-growing], March 2016, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
 
|-
 
|[https://www.iom.int/ International Organization for Migration] (2016)
 
 
|NA
 
|NA
| Philip Morris International partnered with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to provide assistance to the most vulnerable migrants and reduce exploitation and other forms of human-rights abuses in Italy's agricultural sector. The collaboration addressed immediate material needs, supports better access to social services, and provides legal and social counseling. The organization also provided emergency support to IOM in Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to build winterproof facilities for migrants at all stages of their journey.  <ref>Philip Morris International website, [https://www.pmi.com/sustainability/good-agricultural-practices/protecting-migrant-workers Protecting Migrant Workers], March 2016, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://www.europtimum.eu/index.html Europtimum] (2014)
+
|}
|Not Active
+
 
| The office of former French MEP Dominique Vlasto nurtured a special relationship with Europtimum, a lobby consultancy firm based in Strasbourg. Edouard Debra, the director and founder of Europtimum, is a former parliamentary assistant of Vlasto. Philip Morris International was one of Europtimum's largest clients, generating between EUR 150,000 and 200,000 turnover for Europtimum in 2013. Philip Morris France was another client, generating between EUR 50,000 and EUR100,000 in 2013. <ref> Corporate Europe Observatory, [https://corporateeurope.org/power-lobbies/2014/06/mediapart-exposes-unhealthy-liaisons-between-french-mep-and-tobacco-industry Mediapart exposes unhealthy liaisons between French MEP and the tobacco industry], June 2014, Accessed November 2018 </ref>
+
===Hong Kong===
 +
Philip Morris International is pushing for Hong Kong health authorities re-consider their intention to to ban e-cigarettes and other new tobacco products. Philip Morris International used the latest findings from the Royal College of Physicians in the U.K. The report reads: "“E-cigarettes are not a gateway to smoking – in the UK, use of e-cigarettes is limited almost entirely to those who are already using, or have used, tobacco... " <ref> [http://harbourtimes.com/2019/02/01/philip-morris-keen-less-harmful-alternatives-smoking-hk-not-much/ PM keen less harmful alternatives smoking hk not much], ''Harbour Times'', 2 February 2019, Accessed 10 April 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===Indonesia===
 +
Philip Morris International estimates that the 2019 tax hike will cause a the total cigarette industry in Indonesia decline by around 6-7 percent in 2020.{{r|PMI_Q4results|p=32}}
 +
In 2018, four ministers of non-health departments fostered relationships with and endorsed events sponsored by tobacco companies. The Minister of Social Affairs granted the “Padmamitra Award 2018” to PMI’s local subsidiary, PT HM Sampoerna, for its CSR programs on disaster alert systems. The Minister of Industry and the Minister of Labor attended Sampoerna’s CSR program for tobacco retailers,43 ”SRC National Retail Festival” and were photographed with the President of Sampoerna while they were wearing SRC jackets with a logo that said “Let’s go SRC” The Minister of Labor promoted the tobacco industry as an important employer and source of finance. The Minister of Cooperatives and Small
 +
and Medium Scale Enterprises attended a Sampoerna Entrepreneurship Training Center in Bali, endorsing its contribution to small entrepreneurs.44
 +
Two of these ministries come under the Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs, which made important decisions in 2018 that undermined tobacco control. The Coordinating Ministry appointed a think tank, Independent Research and Advisory Indonesia, headed by the former CEO of Sampoerna Foundation,45 to develop a new Tobacco Roadmap to promote the growth
 +
of the tobacco industry through 2045. Four months after the Tobacco Roadmap was released, the government announced there would be no tobacco tax increase in 2019 and revoked a tobacco excise simplification policy.46 The cancellation of the tax increase and annulment of the tobacco excise simplification plan illustrate the extent of influence of the industry on the government.{{r|GTII_2019|p=15}}
 +
 
 +
Indonesian Minister of Education and Culture Nadiem Makarim was criticized for passing the Putera Sampoerna Foundation as one of the recipients of the grant in the Mobilization Organization Program. The Foundation is owned by PT Hanjaya Mandala Sampoerna Tbk, a subsidiary of Philip Morris International. <ref>[https://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20200727142010-20-529372/loloskan-putera-sampoerna-nadiem-dituding-pro-industri-rokok Loloskan Putera Sampoerna, Nadiem Dituding Pro Industri Rokok], ''CNN Indonesia'', 27 July 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===Ireland===
 +
Ireland has long been attractive to large companies because of its low rate of corporation tax and the favourable way that intellectual property profits and dividends within the EU are taxed. Philip Morris International allegedly moves large dividends to the country and interest payments through PMI Insurance Ireland Ltd to other countries, including Switzerland. <ref name="BATH"> University of Batch, [https://web.archive.org/web/20201207072922/https://www.bath.ac.uk/announcements/big-tobacco-big-avoidance/ Big Tobacco, Big Avoidance], 5 November 2020, Accessed 7 December 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
====Kazakhstan====
 +
Kazakhstan’s authorities proposed changes to heated cigarette marketing and packaging regulation in the Eurasian Economic Union. The authorities proposal to the Union included an increase to the size of inscriptions and pictures warning about the dangers of smoking from 50 to 65 percent. The Russian Ministry of Health has also made similar recommendations. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/4760485 Россия и Казахстан предложили включить нагреваемый табак в техрегламент ЕАЭС], ''Kommersant'', 5 April 2021, Accessed 10 May 2021 </ref>According to Forbes Russia, manufacturers disagree with the proposed changes and some sources argue that this step may lead towards halting heated cigarette production in these countries. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.forbes.ru/newsroom/biznes/425375-proizvodstvo-stikov-dlya-iqos-i-glo-v-rossii-okazalos-pod-ugrozoy-iz-za Производство стиков для IQOS и glo в России оказалось под угрозой из-за нового регулирования], ''Forbes Russia'', 5 April 2021, Accessed 10 May 2021 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===Maylaysia===
 +
In Malaysia, Philip Morris International routinely meets with government officials through activities of AMCHAM which the organization is a board member. In October 2018, officials from the Malaysian Ministry of Finance and Inland Revenue Board briefed AMCHAM’s Investment and Taxation Committee. Also present at this briefing were officials from the Ministry of International Trade and Industry and the Malaysian Investment Development Authority. This presents challenges for government officials to avoid meeting with PMI executives at these AMCHAM events. {{r|GTII_2019|p=21}}
 +
 
 +
===Mexico===
 +
Philip Morris International said that it expects Mexican authorities to streamline laws to approve the sale of its IQOS heated cigarette, following a sale approval by the United States FDA. <ref>[https://www.forbes.com.mx/negocios-philip-morris-venta-iqos-mexico/ Philip Morris confía en pronta venta de su IQOS en México tras reconocimiento de FDA], ''Forbes'', 16 July 2020, Accessed 20 July 2020</ref> In August 2020, the company reported that 20,000 Mexican smokers migrated to IQOS to date. <ref> [https://testigos.intermediaweb.com.mx/testigos/clip_reporte_histo_ssl.php?clave=53752506&vcveusu=2489&vertxtimagen=1 PHILIP MORRIS' IQOS NOW HAS 20,000 CUSTOMERS], ''El Financiero'', 5 August 2020, Accessed 24 August 2020 </ref>
 +
 +
Philip Morris International is behind #futurosinhumo [https://www.futurosinhumo.com/ website], requesting the Mexican public to sign a petition that would allow the sale of reduced-risk products in the country. <ref> Futuro Sin Humo, [https://www.futurosinhumo.com/#unete COMPLETA LOS SIGUIENTES CAMPOS], Accessed 12 October 2018 </ref> As of November 2018, the same website is now available in Colombia, promoting e-cigarrettes and IQOS as “healthier” choices. <ref name="PMI_FSH"> Futuro Sin Humo, [http://sinhumo.com.co/inicio CONOCE EL MOVIMIENTO], Accessed 23 December 2018 </ref>
 +
 
 +
In 2019, two initiatives to reform the Mexican General Law on Tobacco Control to regulate ENDS were presented in the Senate. There was no open or public discussion allowed. Within a few days after the second reading was presented, the Health Committee had a resolution which was supportive of the tobacco industry position, and far removed from the original content of the initiatives. In 2018, the lower chamber held a forum on new products to discuss the legislative proposal presented by a congressman who sought to eliminate the regulations on ENDS. In March 2018, Philip Morris México was invited as a principal speaker. <ref> Mary Assunta, [http://www.globaltobaccoindex.org Global Tobacco Industry Interference Index 2019], Global Center for Good Governance in Tobacco Control (GGTC), September 2019, p.13 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===Moldova===
 +
In 2019, Newspaper ''Republik'' revealed that Swiss diplomats had approached the authorities of the Republic of Moldova on behalf of Philip Morris International, to request that the tobacco company be given an opportunity to discuss new tobacco legislation being proposed in Moldova. <ref>[https://www.oxysuisse.ch/files/public/docs/20190731-republick-philip-morris-instrumentalisiert-die-schweiz-fur-moldavien-republik.pdf Diplomatie im Dienst des Weltkonzerns], ''Republik'', 31 July 2019, Accessed 31 January 2020</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Pakistan===
 +
Pakistan Tobacco Company has launched a campaign to cultivate forests through aerial seeding in collaboration with the Pakistani Ministry of Climate Change. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210421071437/https://www.nawaiwaqt.com.pk/E-Paper/islamabad/2021-03-03/page-3/detail-7 ماحولیاتی بہتری کے حوالے سے پاکستان ٹوبیکو کمپنی کا بڑا اقدام], ''nawaiwaqt'', 3 March 2021, Accessed 21 April 2021</ref>
 +
 
 +
In 2020 Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco allegedly manipulated a tender process to award a contract for tracing illicit cigarettes to their preferred company. In 2018, Philip Morris International allegedly bribed a Senior
 +
Customs official to gain confidential information. <ref>Expose Tobacco, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://exposetobacco.org/wp-content/uploads/CorruptionBrief.pdf The Issue Brief The Tobacco Industry and Corruption], 6 May 2021, p.14, Accessed 18 July 2021</ref>
 +
 
 +
===The Philippines===
 +
Manila Times published an article on the alleged benefit of heated cigarettes, following a string of pro-vaping articles from last month. According to the article, the introduction of “non-combustible alternatives” has helped to reduce the smoking rate by nearly a third in three to four years. The quote was attributed to a “public health expert” Kumamaru Hiroya, vice director of the AOI Universal Hospital in Kawasaki who spoke at a webinar entitled “Tobacco Harm Reduction and Novel Nicotine and Tobacco Products-Evidence from the Japanese Market”. Hiroya is also a member of the Expert Advisory Group of the Coalition of Asia-Pacific Tobacco Harm Reduction Advocates, with links to the PMI-funded Foundation for a Smoke-Free World. Hiroya said: “the launching of HTPs [heated cigarettes] like IQOS from PMI in 2014, following a market test in 2013, led to a substantial decrease in the smoking rate over the next three to four years”. The event was moderated by Yvonne Lucas from a strategy and research consulting group, Frost & Sullivan, who have previously worked with PMI. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/04/09/news/world/japan-model-in-smoking-rate-reduction-expert/861593/ Japan model in smoking rate reduction – expert], ''AP'', 9 April 2021, Accessed 10 May 2021 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===South Africa===
 +
Philip Morris South Africa previously contributed to the [http://www.freemarketfoundation.com/ Free Market Foundation], a South African libertarian think-tank. <ref>Free Market Foundation, [https://web.archive.org/web/20130315120814/http://www.freemarketfoundation.com:80/about/members Members], Accessed 15 October 2018 </ref>
 +
 
 +
[http://www.tobaccotactics.org Tobacco Tactics] reported a number of tobacco companies, including British American Tobacco were a donors to the [https://www.atlasnetwork.org/ Atlas Network] in 2015 and 2016. According to the organisation's Wiki "internal tobacco industry documents show the Atlas Network has had a longstanding funding relationship with the tobacco industry." <ref> Tobacco Tactics, [http://www.tobaccotactics.org/index.php?title=Atlas_Network#cite_note-six-8 Atlas Network], Accessed 30 November 2018 </ref>. Full profile on the organisation can be found [http://www.tobaccotactics.org/index.php?title=Atlas_Network#cite_note-six-8 here].
 +
 
 +
===Switzerland===
 +
It appears that a large part of Philip Morris International's annual profits are moved to entities in the country, mainly from holding companies in the Netherlands. However, due to the secretive nature of Swiss banking laws, this money is difficult to trace, making it difficult to hold the company to account. <ref name="BATH" />
 +
 
 +
During the eighth Conference of the Parties (COP8), in October 2018 in Geneva,Philip Morris International (PMI) was hosting a science event promoting its new products. Moira Gilchrist, Philip Morris International’s Scientific and Public Communications Officer, used the company's '@PMIScience' Twitter account to invite the Head of the Convention Secretariat for a visit. <ref>S. A. Bialous, [https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/tobaccocontrol/early/2019/01/18/tobaccocontrol-2018-054808.full.pdf Impact of implementation of the WHO FCTC on the tobacco industry’s behaviour], Tobacco Control: Industry Watch, 18 January 2019, Accessed 13 February 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Former head of the United Nations office in Geneva Michael Moller wrote an appeal to Secretary-General António Guterres suggesting that it may be time to end a moratorium on U.N. cooperation with the tobacco industry. This memo has fueled suspicions among some staff that the influence of tobacco giants—including Japan Tobacco International and Philip Morris International. <ref>[https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/07/12/document-of-the-week-is-the-u-n-revisiting-the-ban-on-big-tobacco/ Document of the weeks is the UN revisiting the ban on tobacco], ''Foreign Policy'', 12 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref> Top UN officials are banned from liaising with tobacco industry representatives on any type of joint initiative, but that hasn’t stopped lobbyists from quietly pushing their agenda within the organisation. <ref>[https://www.brusselstimes.com/opinions/un-memo-points-to-the-tobacco-industrys-enduring-influence/ UN memo points to the tobacco industry’s enduring influence], ''Brussels Times'',  7 August 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019</ref>
 +
 
 +
===Thailand===
 +
PMI is actively lobbying the Thai government to reverse a ban on smoking alternatives like e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products. The company has met with the Ministry of Commerce and the Excise Department and has sent numerous scientific studies on the health advantages of smoke-free alternatives to the Ministry of Public Health. <ref>[https://www.bangkokpost.com/business/1720747/phillip-morris-international-tries-lobbying-against-e-cigarette-ban Philip Morris International tries lobbying against e-cigarette ban], ''Bangkok Post'', 29 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===United Kingdom===
 +
As of January 2020, Philip Morris International is listed as a member of Scottish Grocers Federation a front group 'promoting responsible community retailing by lobbying, communication, networking and advice.' As of 2018, Japan Tobacco International and Imperial Tobacco were both listed as members on the organization's website.<ref> Scottish Grocers Federation, [https://web.archive.org/web/20200107111031/https://www.scottishshop.org.uk/about/corporate-members-sgf Corporate Members], Accessed 8 December 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
[[Philip Morris International]], [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International]], [[Imperial Brands]] and Juul are all members if the UK Vaping Industry Association (UKVIA), United Kingdom's leading forum for supporting, developing and promoting the vaping industry. <ref> UKVIA website, [http://www.ukvia.co.uk/who-we-are/ Who we are], 12 February 2020 </ref> In July 2018, the UK Government threatened to take Philip Morris International to court unless it stops illegally targeting UK consumers with tobacco adverts for "healthier" tobacco products from shops around the UK. <ref>[https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/07/18/government-orders-phillip-morris-stop-advertising-healthier/ Government orders Phillip Morris to stop advertising "healthier" tobacco products or face legal action], ''The Telegraph'', 18 July 2018, Accessed 17 January 2019 </ref> British Conservative Party politician Maria Caulfield MP hosted an afternoon reception on behalf of Philip Morris Limited at the UK's House of Commons. <ref> Parliament UK website, [https://www.parliament.uk/documents/transparency/Events/events-data-2017-18.pdf HOUSE OF COMMONS EVENTS and FUNCTION BOOKING DATA, 01 AUGUST 2017 to 31 JULY 2018], p. 7, Accessed 12 February 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
In August 2020, Patrick Muttart, External Affairs Director at Philip Morris International received a letter from Rebecca Pow MP, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State in response to the company's July 6 letter related to smoking and littering. She mentioned in the letter that "the [UK] Government is prepared to extend the offer of a roundtable discussion between various stakeholders, including tobacco product manufacturers as well as Keep Britain Tidy, to discuss progress on the commitments the industry made." <ref> Department for Environment, Food & rural Affairs,  [https://web.archive.org/web/20201207080745/https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/909420/smoking-litter-letter-to-philip-morris.pdf Rebecca Pow MP, Personal Correspondence to PMI], 3 August 2020, Accessed 7 December 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===Ukraine===
 +
The Anti-Monopoly Committee of Ukraine fined four cigarette manufacturers and distributors, including Philip Morris, JTI Ukraine, Imperial Tobacco, British American Tobacco, as well as the Tedis-Ukraine distributor will appeal the decision of the Antimonopoly Committee for a fine of UAH 6.5 billion (USD 265 million). The AMCU says there was producers' conspiracy to prevent new potential participants from entering the tobacco distribution market. <ref>[https://korrespondent.net/business/companies/4148556-tabachnye-kompanyy-budut-sudytsia-s-amku-yz-za-shtrafa-v-65-mlrd-hrn Табачные компании будут судиться с АМКУ из-за штрафа в 6,5 млрд грн], ''Korrespondent'', 10 October 2019, Accessed 26 November 2019 </ref> Philip Morris International filed a lawsuit for bilateral investment arbitration against the government in connection with the decision of the Antimonopoly Committee of Ukraine to fine them. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210114033615/https://en.interfax.com.ua/news/economic/711724.html Philip Morris files suit against Ukraine in intl investment arbitration due to AMCU penalty], ''Interfax Ukraine'', 12 December 2020, Accessed 14 January 2020</ref>
 +
 
 +
===United States===
 +
In Q1 of 2021, 535 GROUP, LLC lobbied for PMI Global Services Inc., earning USD 150,000. The report was filed on April 19. The Issues lobbied on:
 +
*Monitor Fiscal Year 2022 Agriculture Appropriations (Both U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives)
 +
*Implementation of Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Both U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives) <ref>Propublica, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://projects.propublica.org/represent/lobbying/301031161 PMI Global Services Inc.], 19 April 2021, Accessed 12 July 2021 </ref> In Q2, Squire Patton Boggs did no lobbying for PMI Global Services Inc.. The report was filed on July 14. <ref>Propublica, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://projects.propublica.org/represent/lobbying/301031161 PMI Global Services Inc.], 20 September 2021, Accessed 20 September 2021</ref>
 +
 
 +
Prominent U.S. lawmakers, including Senators Elizabeth Warren, Richard Durbin and Richard Blumenthal, sent letters to PMI and BAT alleging they attempted to “profit off the back of a global health crisis”. The letters sent to BAT and PMI in December cite a Stanford University study finding tobacco companies promoted their products during the pandemic on social media platforms popular with young adults. Some posts even pitched the products as a solution for stress relief during Covid-19. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20210114081511/https://www.bloomberg.com/tosv2.html?vid=&uuid=9f5cb200-5640-11eb-ae81-0d59cfe18bac&url=L25ld3MvYXJ0aWNsZXMvMjAyMC0xMi0yMi90b2JhY2NvLWNvbXBhbmllcy10cmllZC10by1wcm9maXQtb2ZmLXZpcnVzLWxhd21ha2VyLWdyb3VwLXNheXM= Tobacco Companies Tried to Profit Off Virus, Lawmaker Group Says], ''Bloomberg'', 16 December 2020, Accessed 14 January 2020</ref>
 +
 
 +
In March 2020, Philip Morris International registered the following lobbying firms as its lobbyist in the United States.
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Firm Hired
 +
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Reported Contract Expenses 
 +
!style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Issues lobbied
 +
!style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Names
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://www.ideas.org.my/ Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs] (2015)
+
|*Squire Patton Boggs  <ref>[https://www.politico.com/newsletters/politico-influence/2020/03/24/house-bill-would-ban-companies-that-get-coronavirus-aid-from-lobbying-786355 House bill would ban companies that get coronavirus aid from lobbying], ''Politico'', 24 March 2020, Accessed 14 April 2020 </ref>
 
|NA
 
|NA
| According to Tobacco Watch, the Malaysian libertarian think tank [http://www.ideas.org.my/ Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs] started receiving funds from Japan Tobacco International and Philip Morris in 2015. That same year, the organization started publicly opposing to tobacco control measures. <ref>Tobacco Watch website, [https://tobaccowatch.seatca.org/index.php/fact-figure/tobacco-industry/ti-supporter/research-institutions/ Research Institutions and Researchers], Accessed November 2018 </ref>
 
|-
 
|[http://www.rahmatlim.com/SitePages/home/default.aspx Rahmat Lim & Partners, Malaysia] (Allen & Gledhill)
 
 
|NA
 
|NA
| Law firm for Philip Morris (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd <ref name="PMI_TI"> Tobacco Industry Watch website, [https://tobaccowatch.seatca.org/index.php/fact-figure/tobacco-industry/ti-supporter/law-firms/ Lawyers and Law Firms], Accessed December 2018 </ref> 
 
|-
 
|[http://www.bustaman.com/ Bustaman & Co]
 
 
|NA
 
|NA
| Law firm for Philip Morris (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd {{r|PMI_TI}} 
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Australian Institute for Progress
+
|Summit Park LLC
 +
| USD 50.000 per quarter
 +
USD 100.000 in total (as of 28th July 2020)
 +
|Modified risk tobacco products
 
|NA
 
|NA
|The Australian Institute for Progress (AIP) has opposed plain packaging, questions the World Health Organization’s (WHO) capacity to control tobacco use, and criticized renowned tobacco control groups in south-east Asia. In 2016, the group’s former director, Dr Gary Johns, now the Commissioner of Australian Charities, attacked the World Health Organization's proposed international convention on tobacco for lacking transparency and excluding debate. The Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA) said Johns’ letter was "riddled with false accusations". In 2018, the Australian Institute for Progress also signed onto a letter to the WHO opposing plain packaging, which removes branding from cigarette packs. Johns also consulted for the the International Tax and Investment Center, which at the time received funding from Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Japan Tobacco International and Imperial Brands tobacco. In his role at the ITIC, Johns attacked SEATCA as an “instrument of the World Health Organization".{{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (Ideas)
+
|Stewart Strategies and Solutions, LLC
|2015-2017
+
|Approximately USD 80.000
|It received funding from a Philip Morris International affiliate in 2015, and from a second in 2016 and 2017. It also received funds from Japan Tobacco International in 2015 and 2017. In response to questions from the Guardian, British American Tobacco said it donated to Ideas, but did not disclose which years.{{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
+
|Tobacco issues; H.R. 233, Protecting American Lungs and Reversing the Youth Tobacco Epidemic Act of 2020 and other healthcare
 +
|Jennifer Stewart
 +
Ebony Simpson
 +
Kimberly Woodard
 +
 
 +
Agencies lobbied since 2020: Food & Drug Administration (FDA), House of Representatives, U.S. Senate
 
|-
 
|-
|Ukrainian Economic Freedoms Foundation
 
|2017
 
|Philip Morris donated $150,000 to the Ukrainian Economic Freedoms Foundation in 2017. In response to questions from the Guardian, Japan Tobacco disclosed it donated to the Foundation, though did not disclose which years. British American Tobacco said it currently supports this organization.{{r|Guardian_PMI|}}
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
===Marketing, Conferences and PR===
 
  
In 2018, number of Romanian social media influencers and IQOS brand ambassadors, including @Christina_ich  <ref name="PMI_Christina"> Instagram, [https://www.instagram.com/p/Bm3cLWNlQgk/?taken-by=christina_ich @Christina_ich], 24 August 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref> and @Mirela.Bucovicean <ref name= "PMI_Mirela"> Instagram, [https://www.instagram.com/p/BmIJvV2jYuQ/?taken-by=mirelabucovicean @Mirela.Bucivicean], 6 August 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref> posted about IQOS products. They often use IQOS-related posts with #ad. Some also have included the hashtags:  #promisiuneaiqos (IQOS promise), #iqosisnotriskfree, and #exclusivfumatoriloradulti (only adult smokers). <ref name="PMI_Christina"/> <ref name= "PMI_Mirela"/>
 
  
In October 2018, Philip Morris International won Gold Stevie Award in the Marketing Campaign of the Year - Corporate Reputation/ Professional Services category for the ''Philip Morris Makes a New Year's Resolution to Give Up Cigarettes''. <ref> Stevie Awards, [http://stevieawards.com/iba/marketing-awards-category-winners Marketing Awards Category Winners], October 2018, Accessed October 2018 </ref>
+
 
 +
Lobbying expenses reported by subsidiary PMI Global Services in 2019:
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Name
+
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Firms Hired
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Contract Status
+
! style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Total Reported by Filer Reported Contract Expenses 
! style="font-weight:bold;width=20%" |Notes
+
(in USD) <ref> Open Secrets website, [https://www.opensecrets.org/lobby/indusclient_lobs.php?id=A02&year=2018&sort=l&page=2 Tobacco], 19 March 2019, Accessed 20 July 2019 </ref>
 +
!style="font-weight:bold;width=10%" |Lobbyists hired in 2019 <ref> Open Secrets website, [https://www.opensecrets.org/lobby/clientlbs.php?id=D000055403&year=2019 Lobbyists representing Philip Morris International, 2019:], Accessed 23 July 2019 </ref>
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://www.politico.eu/ Politico]  (2019)
+
|PMI Global Services
|Active
+
|6,230,000
| [[British American Tobacco]] and [[Philip Morris International]] advertised with Politico in June 2019. <ref> [https://www.politico.eu/article/big-tobacco-moves-back-into-advertising/ Big Tobacco moves back into advertising], ''Politico'', 3 July 2019, Accessed 9 July 2019</ref>
+
|Davis, Brandie
 +
Huenemann, Jon
 +
Jacobs, Stephen
 +
Paulsen, Zach
 +
Reif, Kristin
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://tbmgroup.eu/ TBMEvolution] (2019)
+
|Akin, Gump et al
|Active
+
|540,000
|Philip Morris International's VP of Digital Capability Development & Training talked at TBMEvolution's 3rd Annual eCommerce & Digital Engagement summit <ref> Philip Morris International twitter, [https://twitter.com/InsidePMI/status/1131827172082163712 Interested in how heavily regulated industries can be successful in the digital world?], 24 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
|Fazio, Vic
 +
Friedman, Francine
 +
Pagano, Ed
 +
Tucker, James R Jr
 +
White, Valerie
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://isontech.info/programme?utm_source=Global IsoNTech Conference] (2019)
+
|Capitol Tax Partners
|Active
+
|240,000
|Developers, manufactures and distributors of eCigsar invited to demonstrate new products and discuss their design and development at IsoNTech Conference. Representatives from [[British American Tobacco]] (Chris Proctor), Philip Morris International (Gizelle Baker) and Juul (Erik Augustson) were present. <ref> IsoNTech Conference website, [https://isontech.info/programme?utm_source=Global ISoNTech Programme], 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
|NA
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://www.globsec.org/ Globsec] (2019)
+
|Cogent Strategies
|Active
+
|230,000
|The PMI IMPACT Conference It Takes a Network to Combat Illicit Trade. Achievements, Challenges, Opportunities, and Solutions is one of the three conferences leading up to the annual GLOBSEC 2019 Bratislava Forum alongside Forbes’ Under 30 Summit Global Retreat and Central European Think Tank Forum, and is scheduled to take place on June 5-6, 2019 in the Sheraton Hotel in Bratislava, Slovakia. The agenda can be found [https://www.globsec.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/PMI-Impact-Illic-Trade-Conference-Agenda.pdf here].<ref> Globsec website, [https://www.globsec.org/events/pmi-impact-conference/ PMI IMPACT Conference], 8 July 2019 </ref>
+
|Adams, David S
 +
Gerard, RandallR
 +
Kauders, Andrew
 +
Purvis, Shellie
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://www.concordia.net/ Concordia Summit] (2018)
+
|FTI Government Affairs
|TBC
+
|230,000
| Philip Morris International sponsored the 2018 Concordia Summit in New York. <ref> [https://www.devex.com/news/big-tobacco-global-health-and-the-limits-of-shared-value-94263 Big tobacco, global health, and the limits of shared value], ''Devex'', 25 May 2019, 13 June 2019 </ref>
+
|Cormney, Kyle
 +
Murray, Jefferies
 +
Styles, Scott B
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://www.mccannwg.co.jp/ Thirteen (McCann World Group Holdings)] (2018)
+
|Hogan Lovells
|Active
+
|150,000
|Philip Morris International appointed Thirteen on a project basis for an undisclosed IQOS product launch. <ref> Campaign Asia, [https://www.campaignasia.com/article/philip-morris-reaches-out-to-new-agency-for-iqos-brand/446308 Philip Morris reaches out to new agency for IQOS brand], 3 August 2018, Accessed 5 January 2019 </ref>
+
|Cutler, Aaron S
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://www.halogencomms.com/ Halogen] (2018)
+
|Ingram Group
|Active
+
|60,000
|According to a Public Interest Investigation website, Powerbase, Halogen Communications has been working with Philip Morris International to undermine the Scottish government's plan packaging laws. <ref> Powerbase website, [http://powerbase.info/index.php/Halogen_Communications Halogen Communications], Accessed 12 November 2018 </ref>
+
|Bunning, Amanda
 +
Lowell, Brandi
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://www.klive.agency/ Klive] (2018)
+
|Mathis Harple Group
|Active
+
|45,000
|Philip Morris International, along with several other brands and startups, have signed on to work with Klive – a new agency founded by a cohort of ex-Omnicom and WPP marketers. <ref>[https://www.thedrum.com/news/2018/11/08/creative-martech-agency-klive-launches-with-ey-and-philip-morris-clients Creative martech agency Klive launches with EY and Philip Morris as clients], ''The Drum'', 8 November 2018, Accessed 12 November 2018 </ref>
+
|Harple, Charles
 +
Mathis, Michael E
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://instinctif.com/global/ Instinctif Partners] (2015)
+
|Ogilvy Government Relations
|NA
+
|100,000
|The UK Public Aīairs and Lobbying Register from June-August 2016 lists Philip Morris UK as one of Instinctif Partners clients. <ref>Public Aīairs and Lobbying Register website, [https://www.prca.org.uk/sites/default/files/PublicAffairsRegister%20June-August.pdf Instinctif Partners], Accessed 12 November 2018 </ref> 
+
|Buchanan, Dee
 +
Giblin, Chris
 +
Lass, Conrad A
 +
Novascone, Todd
 +
Shumack, Tucker
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://other.co.uk/ Other Creative London] (2018)
+
|}
|Active
 
|In October 2018, Philip Morris launched "Hold my light" with a campaign website and a film in which a woman navigates a maze of lasers to relinquish her cigarette lighter to a group of friends. The film was created by Trigger, while content is by Other Creative. Biddable media and programmatic video display was handled by Merkle Periscopix and Amplifi.  <ref name="PMI_Campaign1">[https://www.prweek.com/article/1496807/philip-morris-spoofs-mission-impossible-2m-campaign-calling-smokers-quit Philip Morris spoofs Mission Impossible with GBP 2 million campaign calling on smokers to quit], ''PR Week'', 30 October 2018, Accessed 3- October 2018 </ref>
 
  
The company was also responsible for Philip Morris'imagery behind the 2018 New Year's resolution announcement. <ref>[https://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/were-trying-give-cigarettes-says-philip-morris-ad/1453528 'We're trying to give up cigarettes', says Philip Morris ad], ''Campaign Live'',1  January 2018, Accessed 12 October 2018 </ref>
+
List of issues lobbied on in 2019 <ref> Open Secrets website, [https://www.opensecrets.org/lobby/clientissues.php?id=D000055403&year=2019 Issues, 2019], Accessed 23 July 2019 </ref>:
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! Issue || Specific Issues || No. of Reports (Center for Responsive Politics)
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://www.periscopix.co.uk/ Merkle Periscopix] (2018)
+
| Tobacco || 6 || 7
|Active
 
|In October 2018, Philip Morris launched "Hold my light" with a campaign website and a film in which a woman navigates a maze of lasers to relinquish her cigarette lighter to a group of friends. The film was created by Trigger, while content is by Other Creative. Biddable media and programmatic video display was handled by Merkle Periscopix and Amplifi. {{r|PMI_Campaign1}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://global.dentsuaegisnetwork.com/ournetworks/specialistbrands/amplifi Amplifi](2018)
+
| Foreign Relations || 3 || 5
|Active
 
|In October 2018, Philip Morris launched "Hold my light" with a campaign website and a film in which a woman navigates a maze of lasers to relinquish her cigarette lighter to a group of friends. The film was created by Trigger, while content is by Other Creative. Biddable media and programmatic video display was handled by Merkle Periscopix and Amplifi.  {{r|PMI_Campaign1}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
|[https://www.thisistrigger.com/ Trigger] (2018)
+
| Homeland Security || 2 || 2
|Active
 
|In October 2018, Philip Morris launched "Hold my light" with a campaign website and a film in which a woman navigates a maze of lasers to relinquish her cigarette lighter to a group of friends. The film was created by Trigger, while content is by Other Creative. Biddable media and programmatic video display was handled by Merkle Periscopix and Amplifi.  {{r|PMI_Campaign1}}
 
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://www.pagefield.co.uk/ Pagefield Communications] (2017)
+
| Fed Budget &amp; Appropriations || 1 || 1
|Active
+
|}
|
+
 
'''Official statement on working with the tobacco industry:'''  
+
===Vietnam===
"Working for a tobacco company is always a contentious decision for agencies like ours, especially when the role involves reputation management. Too many consultancies – if they take on that work – are only too happy to conceal the work they are doing.
+
Experts gathered at Vietnamese Ministry of Health workshops which warned about the increase in e-cigarette use amongst youth in the country, especially high-school students. Experts further highlighted PMI’s  continuous efforts to promote its IQOS heated cigarette as a “modified risk tobacco product” based on the United States FDA approval. Experts warned that the use of mass media and social media further spreads misinformation about the product. <ref>[https://web.archive.org/save/https://viettimes.vn/lam-the-nao-de-chong-lai-lan-song-thuoc-la-moi-voi-chieu-tro-tinh-vi-dang-tan-cong-gioi-tre-post144495.html Làm thế nào để chống lại “làn sóng” thuốc lá mới với chiêu trò tinh vi đang tấn công giới trẻ?], ''Viet Times'', 8 April 2021, Accessed 10 May 2021 </ref>
 +
 
 +
===Political Spending===
 +
For a list of political contributions in the United States look [[Political Spending|<strong>here</strong>]].
 +
 
 +
==Research and Development==
 +
 
 +
By December 31, 2019, Philip Morris International hired 430 R&D Experts and has close to 6,300 pending patent applications.
 +
 
 +
Robert G. Eccles, a Professor of Management Practice at Harvard Business School and a Visiting Professor of Management Practice at Saïd Business School, University of Oxford is currently consulting with Philip Morris on sustainability, social impact, and investor engagement. Complex profile on the engagement can be found on Tobacco Tactics website [https://www.tobaccotactics.org/index.php?title=Professor_Robert_Eccles#cite_note-barron-4 here].{{r|MI_CONF2020|p=8}}
 +
 
 +
Philip Morris International released a “scientific study” titled Unsmoke: Clearing the Way for Change. The two main points of the study are the impact of smoking on personal relationships and the lack of information available about smoke-free products. <ref>[https://www.viva.co.id/berita/bisnis/1176815-pemegang-saham-sampoerna-jelaskan-arti-produk-bebas-asap-rokok Pemegang Saham Sampoerna Jelaskan Arti 'Produk Bebas Asap Rokok'], ''Viva'', 27 August 2019, 12 September 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
PMI Science offers a 2-year Postdoctoral fellowship at the company's R&D Center in Neuchâtel, Switzerland for researchers from a variety of backgrounds. <ref> [https://www.pmiscience.com/discover/research/pmi-postdoc-program?utm_source=Global PMI Postdoctoral Fellowship Program], Philip Morris International website, Accessed 21 May 2019 </ref> PMI Science created a tool made for the scientific community, regulators, and anyone with a general interest in PMI’s science, The Smoke-Free Up Close experience. This experience provides "an understanding of the development and assessment behind our smoke-free products in an interactive and experiential way." <ref> PMI Science, [https://web.archive.org/web/20210311081444/https://www.pmiscience.com/whats-new/smoke-free-up-close Smoke-Free Up Close, an interactive tool], 11 February 2021, Accessed 11 March 2021 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Sky News reported that IQOS would potentially reduce the number of noxious chemicals by 95 per cent, though research is still being carried out. <ref>[https://www.standard.co.uk/news/world/world-leading-cigarette-manufacturer-phillip-morris-international-begins-to-phase-out-cigs-in-favour-a4033981.html World leading cigarette manufacturer Philip Morris International begins to phase out cigs in favour], ''Standard'', 5 January 2019, Accessed 7 April 2019 </ref> Swiss Sonntags Zeitung reported that highly dangerous toxins escape from the filters of IQOS when polymer filters are heated to 100 degrees Celsius. <ref> [https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/vaping_swiss-lab-finds-toxic-substances-in-philip-morris-e-cigarette/44878990 Swiss lab finds toxic substances in Philip Morris e-cigarette], ''Swissinfo.com'', 7 April 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019. </ref>
 +
 
 +
Phillip Morris International published a white paper: 'Public Health —Much Harder than Rocket Science'. The document was presented to guests at the 2019 World Economic Forum gathering in Davos, Switzerland. The paper called for a ‘collaborative approach to ending smoking.’ <ref>  [https://www.pmi.com/media-center/news/davos-2019---rethinking-solutions-for-public-health News], Philip Morris International website, 22 January 2019, Accessed 12 April 2019 </ref> Philip Morris once again attended the World Economic Forum in 2020 where Andre Calantzopoulos, Philip Morris International CEO, discussed the company's regulatory challenges and his views on vaping. <ref>[https://finance.yahoo.com/video/philip-morris-mission-replace-cigarettes-220110699.html Philip Morris' Mission Is to Replace Cigarettes, CEO Says], ''Yahoo! Finance'', 23 January 2020, Accessed 19 February 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
According to Guardian, Philip Morris International funded  and supervised research on the impact of plain packaging in Australia and insisted on seeing it before it was published. The study was "widely disseminated in the media and used by the tobacco lobby to make the case that the health initiative had no discernible effect on smoking rates among the young in Australia, and therefore should not be introduced in the UK." <ref> [https://www.theguardian.com/business/2015/feb/14/ow-over-arlboro-funded-research-that-undermined-plain-cigarette-packs Row over Marlboro-funded research that undermined plain cigarette packs], ''The Guardian'', 15 February 2015, Accessed 8 January 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Philip Morris Korea Inc. strongly refuted the finding by the South Korean government that underscored health risks of heated tobacco products. If found guilty, the company could face punitive action. <ref> [https://pulsenews.co.kr/view.php?year=2018&no=386216 Philip Morris defends IQOS safety vs regular cigarettes], Pulse, Accessed 16 December 2018 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Portal Chemical & Engineering News reported that representatives from [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International]], Philip Morris International, and Reynolds American attended the annual meeting of the [https://www.ascctox.org/ American Society for Cellular & Computational Toxicology] focused on non-animal toxicology testing. The website cited the ultimate goal to:
 +
  "to convince officials at the U.S. Food & Drug Administration’s Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) that in vitro methods for predicting respiratory toxicology in humans are ready for prime time." <ref> [https://cen.acs.org/biological-chemistry/toxicology/Big-tobacco-embraces-vitro-toxicology/96/i43 Big tobacco embraces in vitro toxicology], ''Chemical & Engineering News'', October 2018, Accessed 24 October 2018 </ref>
 +
 
 +
A study conducted by Philip Morris International claims that smoking IQOs resulted in a “significant reduction” in lung-tumor formation in mice compared with traditional burnt tobacco. According to Bloomberg, the company studied the effects in mice of different levels of aerosol from heated tobacco, cigarette smoke and fresh air over 18 months. <ref>[https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-11-01/philip-morris-s-iqos-device-causes-fewer-lung-tumors-in-mice Philip Morris's iQos Device Causes Fewer Lung Tumors in Mice], ''Bloomberg'', November 2018, Accessed 30 November 2018 </ref>
 +
 
 +
In 2017, Philip Morris International published 46 peer-reviewed papers in leading scientific journals. In 2017, Philip Morris International filled over 170 new patent applications. Philip Morris International currently have more than 2,900 Reduced Risk Products related patents granted worldwide and over 4,600 such patent applications pending.<ref>Philip Morris International, [http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9NjkwOTgzfENoaWxkSUQ9NDAwNjU5fFR5cGU9MQ==&t=1  Philip Morris International 2017 Annual Report], February 2018, Accessed 8 September 2018 </ref>
 +
 
 +
==Reporting and Regulation==
 +
 
 +
The US FDA authorized Philip Morris Products S.A. to sell IQOS and three types of Heatsticks in the United States. The agency made it clear that it does not mean the products are safe or “FDA approved". <ref>[https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-permits-sale-iqos-tobacco-heating-system-through-premarket-tobacco-product-application-pathway?utm_source=CTPTwitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=ctp-pmta FDA permits sale of IQOS Tobacco Heating System through premarket tobacco product application pathway], ''FDA website'', 30 April 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref> As of July 2020, Philip Morris International can market its IQOS as reducing consumers’ exposure to harmful chemicals found in cigarettes. <ref>[https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-07-07/philip-morris-allowed-to-label-iqos-as-reducing-harmful-exposure Philip Morris Allowed to Say IQOS Reduces Harmful Exposure], ''Bloomberg'', 8 July 2020, Accessed 20 July 2020</ref>
 +
 
 +
Philip Morris International refers to IQOS as products with "potential to contribute to better health outcomes for adult smokers who switch to them completely, since they can significantly reduce exposure to the toxicants in cigarette smoke that are known to cause smoking-related diseases." <ref>PMI Science, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.pmiscience.com/whats-new/tobacco-harm-reduction-heated-tobacco-FAQ?utm_campaign=PMIScience%7CPMIScience%7CGLOBAL%7C%7CAlways+On%7C%7CSmoke+Free+Products%7CSFP+Category%7C%7C%7C%7C20210128&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter++organic&utm_content=Standard+Post&utm_term=autotrack-soc4443406085 Tobacco harm reduction], 29 January 2021, Accessed 11 May 2021</ref>
 +
 
 +
The agency granted an ‘exposure modification’ order, which allows PMI to market IQOS in the U.S. using the following claims:
 +
 
 +
*“The IQOS system heats tobacco but does not burn it”
 +
*“This significantly reduces the production of harmful and potentially harmful chemicals”
 +
*“Scientific studies have shown that switching completely from conventional cigarettes to the IQOS system significantly reduces your body’s exposure to harmful or potentially harmful chemicals” Philip Morris has repeatedly used the FDA decision to lobby for heated cigarettes regulatory changes around the world including Canada, Hong Kong, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, Honduras, Uruguay, Nigeria, Philippines, South Africa, and South Korea. <ref>Tobacco Tactics website, [https://tobaccotactics.org/wiki/pmi-iqos-fda-mrtp-order/ PMI Promotion of IQOS Using FDA MRTP Order], 22 September 2020, Accessed 5 October 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
However, independent analyses of Phillip Morris’s clinical data show that switching from smoking to IQOS does not lead to significant improvements in pulmonary inflammation and function or in biomarkers predictive of major illness. <ref>Moazed F, Chun L, Matthay MA, Calfee CS, Gotts J. Assessment of industry data on pulmonary and immunosuppressive effects of IQOS. Tob Control2018;27(suppl 1):s20-5. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2018-054296. pmid:30158203</ref>
 +
 
 +
Philip Morris urged the Indian government to create a regulatory environment for “scientifically substantiated smoke-free alternatives” after the US FDA authorised the sale of the product in the United States. <ref>[https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/philip-morris-urges-govt-to-create-regulatory-environment-for-smoke-free-alternatives/articleshow/69344795.cms Philip Morris urges govt to create regulatory environment for smoke-free alternatives], ''The Times of India'', 15 May 2019, 13 June 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
  " I don't think anybody wants to ban e-vapor products in the U.S. I think it's an opportunity for us and Altria to move IQOS in the U.S., especially once we get authorization for the IQOS 3 version." - Andre Calantzopoulos, CEO Philip Morris International <ref>Seeking Alpha, [https://seekingalpha.com/article/4310313-philip-morris-international-inc-pm-management-presents-morgan-stanley-global-consumer-retail Philip Morris International Inc. (PM) Management Presents at Morgan Stanley Global Consumer & Retail Conference - Transcript], 3 December 2019, Accessed 16 December 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
The FDA has not ruled that IQOS is safer than cigarettes. Philip Morris International acknowledges that IQOS “has not been demonstrated that switching to the IQOS system reduces the risk of developing tobacco-related diseases compared to smoking cigarettes.” <ref name=“EXPOSE_IQOS”> Expose Tobacco, [https://web.archive.org/web/20201207090236/https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17441692.2020.1824005 FDA does not rule that IQOS reduces tobacco-related harm, yet PMI still claims victory], July 2020, p.4, Accessed 8 December 2020 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Because of the many concerns raised regarding IQOS, other countries have not approved Philip Morris International’s attempts to have IQOS officially recognised as a reduced risk tobacco product. For example, the Italian Ministry of Health denied the company’s application to have IQOS recognized as a reduced exposure and reduced risk product on the grounds of insufficient substantiating evidence. {{r|EXPOSE_IQOS|p=3}}
 +
 
 +
==Investigations==
 +
 
 +
According to an investigation by OCCRP, Philip Morris’s representative in Burkina Faso has allegedly made millions from smuggling Philip Morris’s cigarettes through West Africa, interviews, court files, and leaked documents suggest. For years, he worked with notorious Nigerien drug lord ‘Chérif Cocaine’ to traffic Marlboros north to Libya. He also ran a major warehouse near Burkina Faso’s border with Niger and Mali that supplied illicit tobacco to militants from northern Mali. <ref> [https://web.archive.org/web/20210311083134/https://www.occrp.org/en/loosetobacco/marlboros-man-philip-morris-representative-in-burkina-faso-is-a-known-cigarette-smuggler Marlboro’s Man: Philip Morris’ Representative in Burkina Faso is a Known Cigarette Smuggler],''OCCPR'' 26 February 2021, Accessed 11 March 2021 </ref>
 +
 
 +
Guardian reported Philip Morris International, [[British American Tobacco]] and [[Imperial Brands]] are allegedly buying tobacco leaves that could have been picked by exploited African migrants working in Italy. <ref>[https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/may/31/i-had-pain-all-over-my-body-italys-tainted-tobacco-industry 'I had pain all over my body': Italy’s tainted tobacco industry], ''The Guardian'', 31 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
The US House of Representatives committee has asked e-cigarette manufacturers to hand over details about the health impact of products, heaping renewed scrutiny on the popular devices. The energy and commerce committee wrote to Fontem Ventures, a subsidiary of [[Imperial Brands]], the tobacco manufacturer, which owns the Blu vaping brand, Reynolds American, the US business of [[British American Tobacco]], [[Japan Tobacco International]] and Juul. <ref> [https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/business/e-cigarette-brands-quizzed-by-house-of-representatives-over-risk-to-young-smokers-56d62hdgf E-cigarette brands quizzed by House of Representatives over risk to smokers], ''The Times'', 23 August 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
According to the Independent, [[British American Tobacco]], [[Imperial Brands]], [[Japan Tobacco International]] and Philip Morris International have all shifted their corporate structures to minimise their tax bills in the United Kingdom, researchers from the University of Bath found. Despite being headquartered in Britain, Imperial Brands paid an effective rate of just 13 per cent over the past seven years, during which corporation tax has varied between 20 per cent and 28 per cent. British American Tobacco is also based in the UK but paid “virtually no” corporation tax over the same period, including four consecutive years (2011-14) where it paid nothing at all, the paper found. <ref> [https://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/tobacco-companies-uk-corporation-tax-profits-university-bath-study-a8764841.html Tobacco companies uk corporation tax profits university bath study], ''Independent'', 16 February 2019, Accessed 22 April 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
In 2019, Philip Morris international urged Thailand to drop criminal charges against its Thai subsidiary after a second World Trade Organization ruling that the Asian nation had failed to comply with regulations on cigarette imports. <ref>[https://www.todayonline.com/world/philip-morris-urges-thailand-drop-prosecution-after-wtos-second-ruling], ''Today online'', 13 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
 +
 
 +
The Russian Federal Tax Service has filed claims for 60 billion rubles to the Russian divisions of Imperial Tobacco, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and also Don Tobacco, without taking penalties and fines.  <ref> [http://vesma.today/news/post/8665-nalogovaya-predyavila Налоговая предъявила претензии табачным компаниям на 60 миллиардов рублей], ''Vesma'', 11 July 2019, Accessed 9 August 2019 </ref>
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India's main financial crime-fighting agency is investigating Philip Morris International’s Indian partner Godfrey Phillips for alleged violation of the country's nine-year-old government ban on foreign direct investment in the industry. <ref>[https://www.nasdaq.com/article/india-investigating-philip-morris-godfrey-phillips-20190308-00232 India investigating Philip Morris, Godfrey Phillips] ''Nasdaq'', 8 March 2019,  Accessed 26 April 2019 </ref> Members of the Egyptian Parliament are preparing to launch a thorough investigation into the activities of Philip Morris Misr LLC after several allegations are made of the tobacco company attempts to sack Egypt’s national industry of cigarettes. <ref> [http://www.egypttoday.com/Article/1/65256/Philip-Morris-ugly-face-unveiled-Egypt-Parliament-to-probe-into PM ugly face unveiled Egypt Parliament to probe into], ''Egypt Today'', 26 February 2019, Accessed 14 April 2019 </ref>
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As of September 2018, U.S. national securities law firm [http://www.faruqilaw.com/ Faruqi & Faruqi] is investigating potential claims against Philip Morris International, encourages investors who suffered losses exceeding USD 100,000 investing in the company to contact them. <ref> PR Newswire, [https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/philip-morris-investor-alert-faruqi--faruqi-llp-encourages-investors-who-suffered-losses-exceeding-100-000-investing-in-philip-morris-international-inc-to-contact-the-firm-300707554.html PHILIP MORRIS INVESTOR ALERT], September 2018, Accessed 28 September 2018 </ref>
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===Tobacco Litigation===
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A lawsuit filed by a former employee of the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World alleges that the Foundation coordinates its activities with several tobacco companies including PMI and Altria. The lawsuit questions the independence of the Foundation and suggests that the organisation goes so far as to promote the tobacco companies’ products and is part of tobacco industry’s marketing activities.  The plaintiff alleges the Foundation violates the conditions of its tax-exempt status in the United States, and that she was wrongfully fired from the Foundation when she questioned these activities. <ref> Tobaccotactics,[https://web.archive.org/web/20210226060037/https://tobaccotactics.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/1-COMPLAINT-against-Foundation-for-a-Smoke-Free-World-Inc-FILED.pdf UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK], 13 January 2021, Accessed 11 March 2021 </ref>
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Subsidiaries of British American Tobacco are engaged in on-going legal battles against Philip Morris International in the United States and Romania, claiming the company infringed on patents BAT developed for its vaping products. <ref>Expose Tobacco, [https://web.archive.org/save/https://exposetobacco.org/news/philip-morris-legal-challenges/?utm_source=mailchimp&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=evergreen PMI, FSFW & PM USA Face Legal Challenges from All Angles], 22 March 2021, Accessed 13 May 2021</ref>
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Tobacco giant Philip Morris Italia Srl is likely to end up on trial. The company is accused of bribing several executives of the Customs and Monopoly Agency <ref>[https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2020/09/29/philip-morris-italia-a-rischio-processo-i-pm-di-roma-chiedono-il-rinvio-a-giudizio-per-gli-ex-manager-accusati-di-corruzione/5946853/ Philip Morris Italia a rischio processo: i pm di Roma chiedono il rinvio a giudizio per gli ex manager, accusati di corruzione], 29 September 2020, Accessed 19 November 2020 </ref>
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Thai criminal court ruled that Philip Morris is guilty of evading taxes for under-declaring cigarette imports from the Philippines112 and ordered it to pay USD 39.7 million. <ref name=“EXPOSE_vio”> Philip Morris International, https://exposetobacco.org/wp-content/uploads/TI_Accountability_Policy_Brief.pdf  Tobacco Industry Accountability and Liability in the Time of COVID-19], p. 8, August 2020, Accessed 26 August 2020 </ref>
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State Fiscal Service settled the case by abolishing the notification for USD 23 million taxes and penalties based on Philip Morris Ukraine’s claim that it was granted conditional exemptions from import duties and VAT during the covered period. <ref name=“EXPOSE_vio”> Philip Morris International, https://exposetobacco.org/wp-content/uploads/TI_Accountability_Policy_Brief.pdf  Tobacco Industry Accountability and Liability in the Time of COVID-19], p. 8, August 2020, Accessed 26 August 2020 </ref>
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British American Tobacco sued Philip Morris International in the United States and Germany, alleging that the tobacco heating technology used in IQOS devices infringed its patents. <ref> [https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/04/09/business/09reuters-britishamericantobacco-lawsuit-philipmorris.html BAT Files Patent Suits Against Philip], ''NY Times'', 9 April 2020, Accessed 21 April 2020 </ref>
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Philip Morris International has failed in its efforts to have a UK e-cigarette maker’s trademark cancelled, after the UK Intellectual Property Office (IPO) said it had failed to prove the reputation of its ‘IQOS’ product. Last April, Philip Morris filed at the UK Intellectual Property Office for the cancellation of UK company All Vape’s trademark for its ‘QIS’ e-cigarette brand, claiming it was too similar to ‘IQOS’. <ref> World I Preview, [https://www.worldipreview.com/news/philip-morris-can-t-cancel-vaping-rival-s-trademark-says-ukipo-19485 Philip Morris can’t cancel vaping rival’s trademark, says UKIPO], 27 March 2020, Accessed 21 April 2020 </ref>
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Madrid’s 3rd Commercial Court condemned Philip Morris Spain, S.L. for carrying out acts of unfair competition: illicit advertising of IQOS and tobacco HEETS in Spain. <ref>[https://noticias24mx.com/altadis-gana-una-demanda-a-philip-morris-por-competencia-desleal/ Altadis gana una demanda a Philip Morris por competencia desleal], Noticias, 20 November 2019, Accessed 26 November 2019 </ref>
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Jurors awarded nearly $9.7 million Thursday to a Massachusetts smoker for the role it found Philip Morris played in her lung cancer. Greene v. Philip Morris, 1581CV01808. The Middlesex County Superior Court jury deliberated for more than 8 hours across two days before finding Philip Morris’ involvement in a conspiracy to hide the dangers of smoking ultimately led to Patricia Greene’s 2013 lung cancer. <ref>CVN website, [https://blog.cvn.com/breaking-jury-hands-down-9.7m-verdict-against-philip-morris-for-massachusetts-smokers-cancer Jury Hands Down $9.7M Verdict Against Philip Morris for Massachusetts Smoker's Cancer], 26 September 2019, Accessed 10 October 2019 </ref>   
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A Suffolk Superior Court jury  awarded a USD 21 million judgment against Philip Morris USA to the family of a 59-year-old Lynn man who died of lung cancer in 2016 after smoking the company’s cigarettes for most of his life. <ref>[https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2019/08/15/jury-orders-philip-morris-usa-pay-million-family-lynn-man-who-died-lung-cancer/bcnLdORb1C74hDZ0o76DTI/story.html Jury orders Philip Morris USA to pay $21 million to family of Lynn man who died of lung cancer], ''Boston Globe'', 15 August 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref>
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Brazil's solicitor general's office is suing [[British American Tobacco]] Plc and Philip Morris International to recover the public health treatment costs of tobacco-related diseases over the last five years. <ref> [https://www.bloombergquint.com/onweb/philip-morris-influencer-tobacco-ads-on-social-media-under-fire Philip Morris Influencer Tobacco Ads on Social Media Under Fire], ''Bloomberg'', 22 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref> This move had been praised by the World Health Organisation. <ref> [https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-7068245/WHO-praises-Brazil-lawsuit-against-tobacco-giants.html WHO praises Brazil lawsuit against tobacco giants], ''Mail Online'', 24 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref> A lawsuit, filed at the Administrative Court of Bogota by the local Colombian Consumer Education Association - Educating Consumers, alleges that the Superintendency of Industry and Commerce has allowed Philip Morris to promote its IQOS heated tobacco product since 2017, even though tobacco advertising is prohibited by law in Colombia. <ref> Tobacco-Free Kids website, [https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/es/comunicados-prensa/2019_05_27_colombia COMUNICADO DE PRENSA], 27 May 2019, Accessed 12 September 2019 </ref>
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A Canadian court has upheld the bulk of a decision that ordered three tobacco companies to pay billions in damages. The judgment involves class action suits that were consolidated against Imperial Tobacco Canada, [[Philip Morris International|Rothmans Benson & Hedges]] and [[Japan Tobacco International|JTI-MacDonald]]. <ref>[https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-47409916 Canada appeals court orders tobacco firms to pay billions in damages], ''BBC'', 1 March 2019, Accessed 23 April 2019 </ref>
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Philip Morris (New Zealand) is suing British American Tobacco (New Zealand), alleging its larger rival is breaching competition law by locking retailers into contracts designed to preserve its dominance in a NZD 2.5 billion market. <ref> [http://www.sharechat.co.nz/article/bbece5d0/big-tobacco-firms-clash-in-nz-as-philip-morris-sues-bat-for-anti-competitive-behaviour.html BIG TOBACCO FIRMS CLASH IN NZ AS PHILIP MORRIS SUES BAT FOR ANTI-COMPETITIVE BEHAVIOUR], ''Sharechat'', 22 March 2018, Accessed 2 September 2018 </ref>
  
We did the opposite from day one of our three-year partnership with Philip Morris’s Reduced Risk business.
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The Constitutional Court in Kampala has thrown out a petition by the British American Tobacco Uganda against government over the Tobacco Control Act 2015. BAT Uganda dragged government to court challenging the constitutionality of the act that came into force on May 18, 2016 six months after the president had assented to it. <ref>[https://nilepost.co.ug/2019/05/28/court-blasts-bat-uganda-as-petition-against-tobacco-control-act-is-thrown-out/ Court blasts BAT Uganda as petition against Tobacco Control Act is thrown out], Nile Post, 28 May 2019, Accessed 13 June 2019 </ref>
  
Up on our website went the Philip Morris logo. Three years later and as recently as last night, we won an international PR industry award for our work launching the groundbreaking IQOS – a reduced risk, heat-not-burn product which is 95 percent less harmful than standard cigarettes. Getting shortlisted against far less contentious brands was a victory in itself. Winning for work with a tobacco brand was a massive achievement and a pleasant but not complete surprise.
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A full list of tobacco industry litigation cases can be found [[Tobacco Control Litigation | <strong>here</strong>]].
  
We were in a fortunate situation. First and foremost, we had already made the decision that if we were to work Philip Morris, it would be because it was creating viable, safer and scientifically-proven alternatives to traditional tobacco products.
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In recent years, Philip Morris has also filed numerous legal challenges, both in national and international courts, to strong measures designed to reduce smoking adopted by Australia, Canada, France, Norway, Panama, Uruguay and the United Kingdom. One of the company’s favorite tactics has been to challenge tobacco control laws as violations of international trade and investment agreements. Examples of the company’s legal challenges include:
  
When they approached us to help lay the groundwork for the launch of IQOS, it was an easy decision. This – alongside the business’ move towards reinventing itself – made for a worthwhile and fascinating brief.
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*Philip Morris International challenged '''Australia’s pioneering law requiring plain cigarette packaging''' both in Australia’s courts and in an international tribunal as a violation of a bilateral investment treaty between Australia and Hong Kong. The company lost both cases. According to media reports, Philip Morris has also helped finance an ongoing World Trade Organization challenge that several countries filed against Australia’s plan packaging law (Australia has reportedly won the case, but the World Trade Organization has not officially released its ruling).<ref>[https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-05-04/wto-said-to-uphold-australia-s-ban-on-cigarette-logos Tobacco Logo Ban Said to Get WTO Backing in Landmark Case], ''Bloo